2.8 Concluding RemarksThis chapter has discussed various approaches to critical discourse analysis and attempted to show how CDA interrelates with other topics such as power, ideology, hegemony, discourse, discourse analysis, political discourse, language, text and context as well as others that have a central role in the field of CDA. It also outlined the principles of CDA theories of different scholars in the field, and showed how they serve in analyzing political discourse. These principles provided a foundation for a discussion of Norman Fairclough’s dimensions of critical discourse analysis. The next chapter will present the data set to be analyzed.CHAPTER THREE: DATA AND METHODOLOGY Chapter three explains the data set that consists of four of Donald Trump’s political speeches. It first gives details about the data and the collection methods that are used to acquire the data set, followed by a brief introduction to the US presidential election system. The introduction is then followed by a description of the local context, in which each speech was made and delivered. 3.1 The DataThe data includes four selected speeches delivered by Donald Trump, two of which are before his presidency, the other two are after. The first speech in the analysis is going to be Trump Announcement of Candidacy which was held at Trump Tower in New York City, on June 16, 2015. It was chosen because it marked the official start of his campaign which signals his messages and rhetoric. As a starting point, this speech will help track the development of Trump’s messages as it provided a good context of the campaign. It is important for a comprehensive picture of Trump’s campaign. Being the first speech, it highlighted many messages and features of Trump’s ideology. The second speech is going to be Trump’s acceptance speech at the Republican National Convention which was held at Cleveland, Ohio on July 21, 2016. This speech was chosen because Trump delivered tough statements, promising to eradicate crime, build a border wall, defeat ISIS, revive U.S. economy and urge U.S. allies to step it up. The third speech is going to be Trump’s inaugural address which was given in United States Capitol Washington, D.C. on January 20, 2017 after he was sworn in as president. Trump’s inauguration speech was short and focused mainly on internal issues, but he touched on several of the main themes (about which he spoke) in his election campaign concerning foreign policy, including the importance of American interests, putting them first. This speech was chosen because it pacifies those who opposed Donald Trump, and reassure those who supported him. Moreover, it instills hope and faith in the new president, and it generally outlines how he will lead and rule his country. The final speech is going to be Trump’s Speech to the Arab-Islamic-American Summit. It was chosen because it shapes the future of U.S.-Arab international relations in the Middle East. This speech featured a much softer tone than his large-scale negative harsh statements at his campaign rallies. Therefore, it signals a turning-point in the U.S.-Arab relations.The analysis consists of three stages, which are description, interpretation, and explanation. A mix of both qualitative and quantitative analysis will be used in this research. The two methods are generally used to address research questions. The analysis is based on Norman Fairclough’s assumptions in critical discourse analysis, claiming that ”ideologies reside in texts” that ”it is not possible to read off ideologies from texts” and that ”texts are open to diverse interpretations.” (Fairclough: 1995). The analysis is grounded in and will be guided by Norman Fairclough’s three dimensional models of critical discourse analysis: description, interpretation, and explanation. According to Fairclough each of these dimensions requires a different kind of analysis1 text analysis (description),2 processing analysis (interpretation),3 social analysis (explanation).The first dimension includes the traditional form of linguistic analysis i.e. at the micro level, attention will be drawn to vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, etc… , at the macro level, attention will be drawn to the text structure ,and finally attention will be drawn to the interpersonal elements in a text. The linguistic analysis is mainly descriptive and shows how texts make selective use of linguistic systems.The second dimension highlights how a text is constructed, interpreted and finally distributed. The third dimension focuses in particular on the relation of “discourse” to power and ideology.What is significant about this method is that it helps researchers focus on the signifiers that form the text. It also helps understand that these signifiers are tied to the conditions of the possibility of that utterance. What makes Fairclough’s approach to CDA so useful is because it provides various points of analytic entry. It does not matter which kind of analysis to use, as long as they are all included and are proved to be equally explanatory. 3.2 US presidential election system. The electoral system in the United States is so complicated and complicated that every four years not only do voters and journalists have to refresh the election rules, but also party leaders and election organizers. In the United States there is no central election commission. Candidates do not need to register to start their own election campaign. It is enough to publicly announce this. And there are no restrictions when it can be done. The US is governed by the federal government , with elected representatives at the federal national level, state level and local level. Elections and preparations for them are a pivotal event and a permanent event in the political life of American society. Over 18 thousand positions are elected, beginning with the US president and ending with the sheriff of a small rural community. Elections to federal authorities are held throughout the country simultaneously in November of each even-numbered year.The election process itself is organized by parties. The major parties are Republican and Democrat. The local government is directly voting. Consequently, in different areas of the United States, the procedures, equipment, and even electoral laws are different. Presidential elections in the US begin with the definition of the most popular candidates for the title of presidential candidate. Primaries and caucus are held throughout the country , during which Americans decide who should represent this or that party in the elections. To officially become a presidential candidate, the nominee must win an absolute majority of votes, that is, to vote for half the delegates plus one vote. The candidate from the Republican Party needs to overcome the mark of 1 236 votes, and the Democrat – 2 383. Now the race that continues in the US, called party elections or primaries. Members of both parties – Democratic and Republican – are determined among themselves who will represent them in the presidential election. Voters of each state go to polling stations, schools and religious institutions, where they vote in a more or less traditional way. This is called primaries. Or they organize caucus: people are divided into groups, each supporting one candidate, and counting the number of people in each group. If representatives of one of the candidates make up less than 15% of the total, they are dismissed and begin to agitate to join the groups of more popular candidates. If the candidates gain the same number of supporters, then the winner at each particular site is determined by throwing a coin. The first two states where party elections are held are Iowa and New Hampshire, part elections do not decide who will win, but they make it possible to reduce the number of candidates. The candidates themselves decide whether they should participate in the further struggle, given that the election campaign costs a lot of money, and participation in it requires extraordinary efforts. Candidates come to all states where voting takes place, to meet with voters, and also take part in numerous television debates.3.3 Context of the SpeechesThe data to be analyzed consist of four speeches, the first one was delivered at the beginning of Trump’s primary election campaign, the second was delivered just after the end of the primary election at the beginning of the general election, the third was delivered after Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th President of the United States of America and the final speech was delivered in his first foreign trip in Riyadh. The local contexts of each speech will be chronologically described.Trump’s announcement speech was delivered at Trump Tower in New York city. Trump was one of eleven candidates in the Republican party. However, when he announced his candidacy, he was criticized for having no political experience. This speech was intended to attract the working class. A stratum to whom Trump tried to give good reasons why he is the only candidate who can solve America and Americans problem, as will be discussed in section 4.1. Trump’s RNC acceptance speech was delivered in Cleveland, Ohio after he secured his place as the Republican nominee for the presidential general election. This speech signals a shift in focus from his rivals in the Republican part to his Democratic opponent, Hillary Clinton. With a dark image and an angry tone, Trump portrayed America as diminished and humiliated nation, offering himself the ultimate power to rescue the country. He relied on false statistics that are full of manipulation, citing misleading numbers on issues such as immigration, Hillary Clinton, and other issues occurring in the country such as crime, violence, and terrorism. Moreover, he was accused of endorsing police brutality by encouraging violence while speaking to a group of New York officers. He also accused Democrat Hillary of wanting to accept all refugees, among whom may be jihadists. This will be mentioned in section 4.2. The inaugural address was delivered at the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. after Trump took the presidential oath of office. In this speech, Trump summarized all what he said during his presidential campaign, but his statements revealed many contradictions. However, the speech was directed and addressed to the forgotten Americans, to the common ordinary Americans whom he contrasted with the American establishment who as he said benefited all the previous decades. Trump expressed a sense of solidarity in which he aimed to unite the state in the context of the integrity of its institutions, and the unity of the nation in the name of working together for common prosperity. This will be analyzed in section 4.3.The final speech was delivered in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this speech, Trump outlined his vision of US relations with the Muslim world. In his campaign, he poured many insults and attacked both Arabs and Islam when he said that “Islam hates us” and called for a “total and complete shutdown” of Muslims entering the United States, but when he met with Arab and Muslim leaders face to face, the tone was much more softer. It is worth mentioning that Trump signed a tremendous weapons deal worth nearly $110 billion during a his visit to Saudi Arabia. More details will be analyzed in section 4.4. 3.4 Concluding remarksThis chapter has discussed the methodology and the data that will be analyzed. The next chapter will present the analysis of the data as an attempt to uncover the underlying ideologies that reside in Trump’s speeches and examine the role of language in political speeches and reveal the strategies that Donald Trump utilizes in order to show how they serve the ideology and power of his speeches.
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