21.1 Newton – Rules of Reasoning

            In Isaac Newton’s “Rules of Reasoning
in Philosophy,” he explains what we know as the scientific method. He has four
rules of scientific reasoning. The first rule he says that we should not admit
to a number of reasons for true and sufficient things that are valid and
adequate to clarify their appearances. The second rule says that for the same
natural effects we need to give the same causes. The third rule says that
characteristics of bodies that are found to have a place with all bodies within
tests are to be regarded wide-ranging. Then the fourth rule says that suggestions
composed from observation of phenomena should be viewed as precise or very
nearly true until denied by other phenomena. The scientific method that Newton
describes basically says that there are reasons to why things happen not just because
you are superstitious.


21.4 Locke – Second Treatise of

            Locke’s second chapter in the Second
Treatise of Government is where he talks about his thought on politics:
the understanding that before men say that they should be governed that they
are already living in a state of seamless liberty and equality and are governed
by reason. A premium is set on individual freedom and attendant of self-protection.

A man may rebuke the individuals who work outside the law of nature, and who
might obliterate his life, freedom, property, or wellbeing; the nonattendance
of a specialist allows all men to go about as one. In chapter nine he clarifies
what life resembles in a condition of nature however is much clearer about what
a significant number of the inconveniences can be. He returns to the idea of
property and says that the main reason why men arrange a civil government is
because they want to protect their property. In the end, he says that by
forming a contract, the people give up their freedom.


21.6 Smith – Wealth of Nations

            In Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations,
he talks about the economic growth. Smith says that growth is the increase of division
of labor. This breaks down large jobs into tiny factors. Division of labor creates
an addition that gives a more people access to products that would be
unaffordable. Since more people can access it, it makes manufacturing increase.


21.8 Wollstonecraft – Rights of

            In Wollstonecraft’s introduction,
she talks about how women are ignored when it comes to education. Since they
are ignored, they become “weak and wretched.” They are told that all they have
to rely on is beauty, which gives them unhealthy minds. She hopes that her work
will “persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body.”
She wants to show that “elegance is inferior to virtue.”  


22.1 Declaration of Independence

Jefferson included some grievances in the Declaration of Independence. These
grievances were about King George III. The complaints were: he refused to
enforce laws, he forbade the legislature to pass laws, he refused to pass laws
that would benefit certain states, he made it difficult for the colonist to
participate in governance, he denied judges their independence to make
decisions, he refused to protect the people from foreign aggression, and many
more. Jefferson also has enlightenment ideas in the Declaration of
Independence. One idea is that people are entitled to certain rights because they
are human. Another idea is that the government is only legitimate when it comes
from the agreement of the people. Lastly it states that the main reason for a
government is to protect the people’s right.