a) A description of ethics in general and why it is important to employ ethics in health promotion. Ethics are moral principles that controls a person’s behaviour and decisions. In Health and Social care, we should develop an acknowledgment that ethics overlap. Our care for patients and clients should always be based on sound judgement or evidence based practise, this judgement is about having a strong sense of knowing what is right and what is wrong. Having a strong sense of knowing what should be done and shouldn’t be done as Health care workers is important as the code of conduct must be followed and principles must be met. It is also very important that we have a strong sense of what the priorities are. Quick decisions must be made for which there is not always an easy or correct answer for. For example, questions like can Mr Jones manage his own medications safely? Must be taken into consideration. Whatever the decision and action we will still have to be able to explain and account for them. The NMC code can act as a guide which can be seen as a ‘code of ethics’ which is a set of very important principles to help guide nurses in their job. In health and social care, it is important that we are non- maleficence meaning we do not cause harm to others, we don’t incapacitate, we don’t cause offence and we do not deprive people. Non-maleficence is one of the four key ethical principles. Another key ethical principle is beneficence which means doing good to benefit the patient. Justice is also another key ethical principle which results in treating people fairly, not favouring individuals over others which can cause harm because it could lower someone’s self-esteem. Justice also means acting upon things in a non-discriminatory way, respecting people’s rights and respecting the law. There are 6 key values that should be considered when promoting or working in a health base environment these key values are; autonomy, well-being, needs, respect, consent and anti-discrimination. Autonomy is a value in medicine where we should let patients make their own decisions we also need to respect and support these decisions no matter what we personally, believe. Autonomy also means that we should not force things and ‘informed consent’ is a very important outcome of this key value. As well as autonomy being a key value it is also a key ethical principle. The second key value is well-being, this is the state of being comfortable, healthy and happy. The third key value is needs where we must meet the needs of patients within the health and social care sector. The forth key value is respect where we must respect a patient’s choices and the patients in general. Consent is the fifth key value, this is the agreement to something. All of the key values are important in health promotion as they allow us to respect anyone that we were talking to during the campaign. The key values also taught us that no matter what it is extremely important that we do not judge anyone for any apparent reason during the campaign and in health and social care in general. The four ethical rules are veracity, privacy, confidentiality and fidelity. Veracity means telling the truth and having respect for autonomy. Privacy is a person’s right to remain as private as they wish it also means to be concealed from someone else’s view. Confidentiality means only sharing private information when absolutely necessary. Fidelity means loyalty and maintaining the duty to care for others no matter who they are or what they may have done in the past. b) conversations you had in your groups that identified the ethical issues of your campaign. The conversations I had in my group that identified the ethical issues of my campaign were based on what was appropriate for a sexual health campaign. As it was a sexual health campaign we had to be very careful with the information we were displaying as it would be easy to offend someone. We had conversations about the slogan we were going to use because it had to be professional and nothing that was childish or rude. Another conversation we had that was based off the ethical issues of our campaign was about any pictures that we were going to use as we had to make sure we used appropriate pictures and nothing explicit that could have offended anyone or caused damage to the campaign. We also had a conversation about swearing where we discussed that under no circumstances should we include swearing in our campaign as after all we were promoting it in the college so it wouldn’t have been appropriate for it. c) Identify any changes you made to your campaign according to the ethical considerations. Due to our ethical conversations, we made changes to our campaign to benefit us and the people around us. We firstly changed our slogan as it was our biggest problem due to the fact that it was extremely easy for us to come up with things that was unprofessional, we made this change because we understood that we had to take sexual health seriously as it’s such a big problem now. Another change we made was to the images we were going to use as we had to make sure they were not rude in any way whatsoever. d) Explain the damage that might have occurred if you had not changed your campaign to incorporate ethics. If we had never changed our campaign to incorporate ethics then we would have caused a lot of damage to the people around us. Firstly, if we hadn’t changed our slogan to something less childish and more professional then we could have easily offended someone and got into trouble for inappropriate promotion which we did not want to happen. We could have also caused damage to the campaign itself as by using any images that wasn’t appropriate we would have pushed people away from the campaign and not draw them in, as well as this if we had used inappropriate images we probably would have had to stop the campaign all together because it wouldn’t have been college friendly and if this had happened it would have resulted in us failing our health promotion assignments. e) How was the campaign devised what models and approaches were used and explaining your choice for using these The model I used for the campaign was the Prochaska and Di Clemente’s model of behaviour change. I used this model as it encourages people to question there behaviours which was the whole point about the campaign. The model shows the processes in enough detail so I was able to understand it without any difficulties. It is also a positive model because it shows you could fail and still try again for better results next time. The model also doesn’t require a set time so it is very useful for any individual so they could figure out and get over the obstacles to the model in their own time at a preferred pace which will hopefully result in them overcoming them. However, the model does require more time to understand. The model links to my campaign because we were trying to make people think about being more careful and using contraceptives and after they realise there is a reason to change their ways they will go through all of the steps of the model. The models I didn’t use was the Azjen’s theory of planned behaviour and Rosenstock’s Health belief model. I didn’t use the Azjen’s theory of planned behaviour change as the model doesn’t consider factors that could get in the way of behaviour change such as fear and past experiences which would result in whether someone would follow the campaign and start thinking about changing their behaviours. I also didn’t use Rosenstock’s Health belief model as it takes a lot more time to understand than Prochaska and Di Clemente’s model of behaviour change. The cost of actions for this model might have also not have benefited someone listening to a health campaign about sexual health as contraceptives cost money that someone might not have and even though you can get them from the doctors they may not feel comfortable going there. The approaches I used for the campaign was social marketing, role of mass media and two-way communication. The Social marketing approach is a way of helping people make a difference and altar any bad behaviours for the good of people and the entire society. Social Marketing points you in the correct direction and helps you with choosing who is best to work with. It can educate you on what behaviour is best to change, how to change your behaviour and how to measure and evaluate it. Social Marketing tries to make it clear to you how changing your behaviour can benefit you in the short term and long term rather than you going to a doctor who would only tell you not to do a certain something because it’s bad for you. I decided to use the social marketing approach as I knew the campaign could have obtained popularity from it if we had used it correctly. The Mass Media approach is the different ways that information and news come across large groups of people. People receive the information and news through different forms such as T.V, radio, magazines, posters, newspapers, leaflets and billboards. The approach aims to educate by reaching out to people and showing them that changing their behaviours and ways is better for themselves and the people around them, the approach also tries to persuade new attitudes. I used this approach because it could easily raise awareness for health issues, concerning my campaign. It also has the ability to reach a number of people in a short amount of time, another advantage is that Mass Media can convey simple but useful information and it also places health on the public agenda. The Two-way Communication approach is where two people communicate with each other, one of these people being the sender and the other being the receiver. Two people could communicate face to face where one person would be speaking the other would be listening, it can be very easy to tell whether or not someone is actually listening to you whilst you are speaking for example you could tell whether you have someone’s attention through their body language, facial expressions and whether they are or are not making eye contact with you when you are talking. However, many people choose not to make eye contact as they may find it awkward or they may believe that they are making the speaker feel awkward but they are still listening to what someone has to say. I decided to use the mass media approach as it allowed me to be open to instant feedback from anyone listening to the campaign and it can be more democratic. The approach we didn’t use was the community development approach as we didn’t have enough time to include it in our campaign because it’s very time consuming and on a short notice it’s difficult to include it. f) How successful were your aims and objectives (was there anything that was missed out? Did the aims and objectives help with moving the project forward and the overall finished campaign?) My groups SMART aim was to make a lot more people aware of how serious sexual health problems actually are today and how it could affect you in the short term and long term. The three objectives of our campaign were one; to educate people on the different sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia and HIV which they could get if they aren’t careful, two; to make people wary of the facts and statistics linking to sexual health and three; to make people think about changing their behaviours. I think that the aims and objectives were overall quite successful as we made a lot of people aware of how sexual health could affect you in the short and long term which hopefully made them think about changing their behaviours. They were also successful as we mainly had positive feedback which shows that the campaign interested people and the campaign followed the aims and objectives so the campaign was a success due to them. I don’t think there was anything missed out of the campaign as we tried to include any information that was relevant so we covered all aspects of sexual health. The aims and objectives helped with moving the project forward and the overall finished campaign as it gave a structure of what to follow so I didn’t go talking about something irrelevant and I stayed with a focus and an aim. g) What do you think is particularly good about your campaign? Why? Is there ANYTHING you could do to improve it? What factors influenced the effectiveness? I think that the information that we were promoting was particularly good about the campaign as we had information on a lot of things that linked to sexual health. By having a lot of information, it was likely that something we had told someone they wouldn’t have known so they could have been more interested. Our posters were also very eye catching as we used bright colours to grab people’s attention which proved to work as they were even reading the information themselves. We also included questionnaires in our campaign which was a huge success to the campaign as people wanted to fill them out without us having to even ask. The questionnaires allowed us to have feedback so we were able to acknowledge on what we could improve and what we did well. The questionnaires also ran out half way through the campaign which shows that they were a benefit to the campaign as people were interested in filling them out. However, we could improve this by printing out more questionnaires so everyone would have a chance to give us their feedback. Our leaflets were also a good thing about the campaign as anyone who came along to the campaign would go away with the important information that we were trying to get across to people hoping they will start thinking about changing their behaviours for the better. The leaflets could have also allowed anyone who didn’t see the campaign to up their knowledge on sexual health as they would have been able to read someone else’s leaflet. Another good thing about the campaign was our logo as we thought creatively to create something that was suitable for the campaign and something that would have made people interested. The factors that influenced the effectiveness were age and location. Location influenced the effectiveness of the campaign as it is where many of the students go on their breaks. Many students walk back and forth there to enter and leave the college so they were likely to see the campaign. Age influenced the effectiveness of the campaign as the age of the college students is probably the most suitable age for the campaign’s target audience as the information would be most useful for them. h) Is there anything you think is poor about your campaign? Why? What could you do to improve it? (Remember, you don’t actually have to make these changes!) identify what could be done differently. There are one or two things that I think was poor about my campaign that could definitely be improved and done differently. One thing that was poor about my campaign is that we didn’t have many resources which was a disadvantage to the campaign because people might have thought that our campaign was less interesting than the rest of the campaigns that used more resources including props. To improve this, we could use more resources and try finding props that would be suitable to the campaign. The place where we were located was somewhat poor due to the fact that we were close to the disabled access door which was being used quite frequently which let in wind which caused destruction to the campaign as our resources such as the leaflets were being blown away. To improve this, we could have moved further up away from the disabled access door if possible. i) Is there anything else you could improve in your campaign? In the campaign, I think I could also improve my confidence as I struggled a bit with talking to people due to it. If I was to improve my confidence I think it would benefit my campaign as I would be able to make people more aware of our aims and objectives to the campaign. j) If money was no object, how would you go about marketing the campaign and getting people to see your campaign? If money was no object, I would use a range of different forms of advertisement that would usually cost a lot of money. The best way for marketing the campaign and getting people to see it would be to use celebrity enforcements as a lot of people look up to celebrities and sees them as role models. Therefore, they would listen to what they have to say and hopefully follow the campaign. Celebrities can also reach a large number of people in a short amount of time due to many having millions of followers on their social media platforms. However, I would have to choose a celebrity wisely because if the celebrity had said or done anything in the past that links to sexual health in a negative way it could cause the campaign to receive negativity from the public. Ed Sheeran is an example of a celebrity that supports campaigns such as campaigns on mental health. Another way for marketing the campaign and getting people to see it would be to use adverts on the tv and other places such as YouTube which is used a lot by the younger generation who happens to be the target audience of the campaign. Social media could also be a great way to market the campaign and getting people to see it as it is very unlikely that the younger age groups would have no social media at all. Social media can also reach a large number of any age groups. Another way to market the campaign and getting people to see it if money was no object is to create leaflets and hand them out to the students in the college as they are the main target audience. Leaflets can be the alternative for anyone who doesn’t have social media or does not watch tv so they are as aware of the campaign as someone who has five social media accounts. To make the leaflets even more effective it could include a coupon or a quiz that requires them to read the leaflet which would result in a prize if answered correctly. Some people might also be more likely to read a leaflet that is given to them directly than reading something online. If money was no object, I could also use billboards to market the campaign as they are usually not hard to miss so it will draw in attention but, as the campaign is focused on sexual health I would have to make sure I use correct wording and keep it very professional. k) If money was no object, how would go about evaluating your campaign to find out what your audience thought when they saw it? If money was no object, I would go about evaluating the campaign to find out what the audience thought in a few different ways for the best feedback possible. One of the best and most effective ways to find out what the audience thought would be to send out questionnaires to the people who received a leaflet having already wrote their names and addresses down when the leaflets were given to them. The questionnaire could include a range of different questions including how useful the information included in the leaflet was where they would circle a number between 1-10, 1 being not very useful and 10 being very useful. The questionnaire could also include a question on how we could improve the campaign if we were to do it again. Included with the questionnaire there could be a free stamp to return the questionnaire or someone could pick them up a week or two after they are sent out. Another way to evaluate the campaign to find out what my audience thought when they saw it can be to create social media polls which will hopefully reach out to those who didn’t receive a leaflet so they are able to give their feedback. Online quizzes can also be used to evaluate the campaign to find out what my audience thought. Online quizzes can be a great way to find out what the audience thought of the campaign as it allows instant feedback and is easily accessible as most people have Wi-Fi or access to Wi-Fi in public places.
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