Advertising is one of the ways that connects enterprises to consumers. Although enterprises have their own brand image they all have a common goal – to appoint the right person for their products or services to make an impact on the consumers. Besides brand image and spokesperson, another component that can affect the consumers’ opinion is advertising frequency. In their study on The Effect of Advertisement Frequency on the Advertisement Attitude-The controlled Effects of Brand Image and Spokesperson’s Credibility, Chu et al. (2012) aimed to know the effects of brand image and the credibility of the spokesperson on the consumers’ opinion, in addition to the effects of advertising frequency.
In today’s modern world, numerous enterprises compete to be on top consequently the way they advertise their products or services can have a massive effect on the consumers. The authors focused their research on three hypotheses – (a) first, brand image positively influences the effect of advertising (b) second, the spokesperson’s credibility has a positive influence on consumers’ attitude towards advertising and (c) third, different advertising frequency has different effects on consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
The researchers used a hybrid method to gather and examine information. They modified a 50-minute popular television show including 6 commercials with their target and interfering advertisements at a frequency of 1, 2, 4 and 6. The 457 participants who joined in this experiment were second and third years students who studied at the University of Science and Technology in Taipei. Two survey-questionnaires containing questions about the brand image, spokesperson’s credibility and attitude to advertising were used at different times. First, before watching the program the participants were told to answer a questionnaire about the brand image and spokesperson’s credibility. Second, after watching the program they were asked to fill out another questionnaire about their reaction to the advertisement.
The data proved the researchers’ three hypotheses. First, the study revealed that the students’ view of the brand image had a positive effect on them naturally, the higher the brand image, the higher the consumers’ attitude towards advertising is. Second, similar to the first hypotheses the experiment also showed that the spokesperson’s credibility had a positive effect on them assuming that the credibility of the spokesperson is higher, then the consumers’ attitude towards advertising would also be higher. Lastly, the study revealed that different advertising frequency did have different effects on the consumers’ attitude towards advertising, they believed that when participants understood the brand of the product and trusted the spokesperson to a degree, the participants’ attitude towards advertising frequency varied when they view the advertisement at different times. However, according to Blair (1987) “high frequency of advertising will bore the audience and less persuasion of advertising has a worse effect even though the frequency of broadcasting is increased”(p. 45-50) which contradicted to what the researchers had analyzed their data that showed them that higher frequency has a higher influence on consumers’ attitude.
The topic about the effects of brand image, spokesperson’s credibility and advertisement frequency on the advertisement attitude of consumers is old which means there is a possibility of it being a replication or an extension of previous studies. Despite being a replication or extension of other studies, it is still a good paper as it contains information from previous studies, for instance, the questions used in the questionnaires were from other researchers.
This study was published in 2012; furthermore, a majority of the studies that were used as reference were between a decade and four decades old if it is to be subtracted to the current year which could lead to problems for the paper. Some of the reference materials that were used were reasonable given the time it was written; however, it should be noted that this kind of study has been examined by numerous researchers so there should be at least a recent study that was used in the making of this article.
Overall, the study seems well-made apart from the paper and reference material’s old age. However there is another possible problem, the researchers only used this experiment on college students, they should also use them for all ages as it may have different results from what they had learned.