B:Open Collocations: A combination of
two words or more . They are unrestrictly   
combined together as there is no relation among them. Here a word can
associate with a series of different words , example:-the verb ‘cut’ collocates
with: Hair ,ties , prices, jobs, and body.

C: Bound Collocations:  Cowie (1981:228) defines them as ” A
bridge category between collocations and idioms” .

Abu –Saydeh (1991:66) proposes that more
focus should be directed towards lexical collocations , because ”
Grammatical collocations has received its fair share of emphasis in the work of
grammarians and lexicographers”.

Newmark (1981:114) divides collocations
into two broad types : Paradigmatic or syntagmatic . Paradigmatic types are
hierarchy –based like kinships as in ‘mother and daughters , father and sons’ ,
colors as in ‘bright green’ , ‘sky blue’ , ‘snow –white ‘, ‘dark red’, ‘coal
-black’/’pitch –black’/’jet –black’ .

Newmark (1981:118) further divides
syntagmatic collocations into the following:-

1-Adjective and Noun

Examples include:

1-bright colour  : ???
?? ??? ???? 2-brief chat
???? ?? ?????        :  ????

3-major problem:  ?????? ?
?????

English and Arabic are full of this  common type of  collocations .Some- times students translate
them as tantamount to their Arabic equivalents. Yet , most students suffer to
provide good or exact translations to some other kinds of these types of
translation such as :-

1-hard facts :   ?????? ?????

2-artificial person :(????????? )   ???????? ????? 3-small talk :????
(????? )         ????

4-high treason :   ????  ?????  5-high
time : ????? ???????       

Any other kind of translations  into Arabic will not be acceptable like
:-hard facts(  ????  ?????)
, artificial person ( ?????  ???
) ,small talk  ????) ????)
, high treason (  ????? ?????) ,high time ( ???? ???).

Therefore , as a solution  students should do their best to find and
then use the best identical collocation and avoid literal translations .

Here are some more special  adjective +noun collocations which are used
to describe movement and speed :-

1-fast : computer , lane , pace , car
and train .

2-quick : shower , decision , look ,
glance , answer , and lunch .

3-rapid : growth , decline , change ,
progress , movement , and increase .

4- speedy : conclusion and access . 5-
swift : action and  reaction .

6- prompt : payment 7- brisk : walk , business
and efficiency .

8- hasty : words and exit .

Learners or translation students
frequently miss English equivalents for these adjectives. Therefore , as a
solution , the researcher suggests that students can resort to using the
easiest equivalent they find ; most probably ‘ fast ‘ .

Or more confusing examples as:

1- artificial respiration :  ?????  ???? 2-incurable disease :     ???? ???

3-strong tea :         ???? ???  4-grave
breach :   ????  ??????  5-free
admission :  ?????  ????

Students confuse themselves here as they
find more choices of synonyms here ; industrial or artificial  , strong or heavy , grave or dangerous .

2-Noun and Noun.

 Noun + Noun Collocations examples such as:

1-gun powder : ?????  2-bread
winner :  ???? (??????)?3-breath test :  ???? ???

4-gun runner : ????? ????
5-fire truck / fire engine :  ????? ?????

Or noun + noun ( the of –genitive (???????)
Collocations like:-

1- breach of contract :??
????? ??????   ???  2-breach
of peace :   ??????
 ?????

3-breach of security :????    ??????
 4-break
of serve :?????   ???

Other examples include :-a sense of
humor /pride , a surge of anger .

Students here should be aware of the
resemblance between words in this categories ; such resemblance may cause
confusion to them such as: breach of peace 
and breach of security . Also grammatical structure of both languages
have to be observed .

Or noun + and + noun ( addition )
collocations:-

1-the carrot and stick :   ??????  ??????  2-ladies
and gentlemen :  ?????  ??????

3-Stars and Stripes :????????     ?????  4-
bread and cheese :  ??
?????))  ????? ?

Some kinds of these collocations are
easy to translate , because they have their direct equivalents like :- ladies
and gentlemen , carrot and stick , but some are a bit difficult requiring good
knowledge of the source language such as:- Stars and Stripes  (????
? ???? ) , bread and cheese (???
????) will be destructive and funny.

3-Verb and Noun. Newmark (1981).

 
Verb + Noun Collocations examples:-

1- raise capital : ????
??? ????? / ???? 2-commit a mistake :  ???? ?????

3-lift ban  :????
?????    4-
send a cable : ????? ????

5- receive a message:  ?????
????? / ?????

The main idea here is a verb and noun
matching where students  provide the
exact Arabic collocation , but in most cases students commit mistakes as in the
following examples :-

1- 
stand criticism : ????? ????? 2- raise an issue :????
????       3-pick
a fowl:   ????? ????

4-bear a hand :?????