CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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An Advertisement is a
form of communication. Ads are anything that draws attention towards the
product and public. Advertising is the action of calling public attention to
something, especially by paid announcements. Advertising is communicated
through various mass media networks like newspaper, magazine, television,
radio, new media, blogs etc. Advertising is an audio or visual form of
marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal messages
to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Advertising plays a necessary
role in the growth of economy. Advertising is increasingly invading public
spaces, such as schools, colleges, etc.

Nowadays, advertisement is the tool
which many companies and initiatives use to inform prospective customers about
their products and services.

Advertising has evolved into a
vastly complex form of communication, with literally thousands of different
ways for a business to get a message to the customer.  Today’s advertisers
have a vast array of options at their disposal. The internet alone offers many
of these, with the start of branded viral videos, banners, advertorials,
sponsored websites, branded chat rooms and so much more. Advertising plays a vital
role in today’s society, more than it ever has before. There is not just an
importance placed on objects as products, but as yourself as a product. Advertising
forms and mirrors culture. Advertisements use music from popular songs or create
jingles with beats and rhythms that reflect the top hits. Commercials also use
stylistic elements of blockbuster movies including camera angles, lighting and
one-line puns or slogans. The main attitude and beliefs of society are also
reflected in ads. Customers are not always passive in receiving the messages
and goals of advertisers. In some cases, people spur a criticism against the
aims of advertisers, specifically when the marketing is geared towards
susceptible children. Purveyors of unhealthy food are particularly susceptible
to societal outcry. Many concerned citizens state companies offering unhealthy
food should be regulated with regard to their advertising tactics. (Frank
Trentmann 2010,)

Advertising is the paid campaign
that uses strategy and messaging about the benefits of a product or service to
influence a target audience’s attitudes and/or behaviors .Advertisements play a
prominent role in shaping opinions about everything from products to politics.
A Forbes article (2012) stated: “Advertising plays the same role in your media
diet that vegetables play in your regular diet; most of us would prefer to skip
that course and go straight to dessert. But, just like veggies, advertising
plays an important role in sustaining a body; in this case, a diverse body of
content.” Advertising heavily supports many organizations, including news media
outlets, the television industry, search engine companies, and social media
websites. For example, advertising contributes up to 80 percent of revenue for
newspapers and therefore is critical to maintaining the circulation of the
press (Newspaper Association of America, 2014).About a third of that figure
went to television advertisements, and another third went to digital
advertising. With its economic and cultural function in society, the
advertising industry has an expansive reach.

HISTORY OF ADVERTISING .

The history of advertising can be
traced to early civilizations. It became a major force in industrial economies
in the mid-19th century, based primarily on newspapers and magazines. In the
20th century, advertising grew rapidly with new technologies such as direct
mail, radio, TV, the internet and mobile devices. Egyptians used papyrus to
make sales messages and wall posters. Wall or rock painting for commercial
advertising is another appearance of an ancient advertising form, which is
present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.

 

Advertising has experienced some
major milestones – think the emergence of the printing press in the 1440s, or
the huge impact of television.

Since its very first beginnings,
which are thought to date back to steel carvings made by the ancient Egyptians,
advertising has constantly had to adapt and change to suit new means and an
increasingly practicality audience.

But there’s been one medium that’s
had a bigger impact on advertising than anything before it, i.e “The great
World Wide Web.”

The internet has revolutionized
advertising in the most amazing way. Not only has it changed the way ads are
broadcast, but it’s changed the way customers act towards them. Advertising has
become one main part of our daily lives. We come across thousands of
advertisement in a day. Advertisements shapes the mind sets of the people.
Advertisements play an important role both in political and socio-economical
fields.

HISTORY OF ADVERTISING IN PRINT ADS

In one form or another, print ads
have been around since the 15th century. However, it’s the last 100 years that
have contributed most to what we now think of as the current print advertisement

Advertising both mirrors culture,
and helps create it. Just as the needs and desires of the customer changes, the
style of the print ad evolves to accommodate these changes. Below is an
exploration of the ever-evolving style of print ad design.

 

1910s

Print advertisements in the 1910s
still resembled the visually crowded and copy-heavy ads of the 19th century.
However, we see the seeds of the current print ad being planted here: though
these ads rely on long body copy, the decade did manage to produce some iconic
images.

 

1920s

Though print ads in the 1920s still trusted
heavily on long bodies of copy, images begin to play a larger role. We begin to
see a better use of negative space which makes the ads appear less messy than
in previous decades.

1930s

The stock market crash of 1929 and
the subsequent Great Depression had a great impact on the advertising industry.
Advertising generally slackened down and we see little change in style from the
1920s.

1940s

Print ads in the 1940s begin to
depend more on imagery – some even avoiding block copy altogether in favor of
images and slogans. We start seeing less and less copy and a better use of
negative space.

1960s

Advertisements such as Volkswagen’s
“Think Small” ad were the first of what would later be called the
‘Creative Revolution’ of the 1960s and 1970s. These ads rely more on big ideas
than in earlier decades, and we begin to see the more modern style combining a
balance of headline and body copy. 

1980s

The ads of the 1980s are much more naive
than we have seen thus far. We now see even less copy and a focus on the female
as the primary consumer.

2000s

In the 21st century, easiness and
minimalism is key. Advertisements these days are often extremely image based
with a reliance on digital manipulation. There is commonly an nonappearance of,
or very little, copy, and an employment of neat, simple ideas.

2010s

The 2010s has further comprised the
minimalist use of copy, focusing to an even greater extent on high resolution
imagery to sell the message. There is a slant towards surrealist imagery, improving
strong elements that focus more on contrasts, as well as positive and negative
spaces.

This platform of print advertising
shows the evolution of the medium over more than 100 years – and it has evolved
a lot. The coherence of copy and design, and the balance therein, has varied
considerably.

From the copy heavy ads of the early
20th century to the progressively new and image driven ads of today, it is
obvious that both the standards and the trends in print advertising are
ever-changing. 

BRANDS

 A brand is a name, term, design,
symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an association or product from its
rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising
.Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that
help to distinguish a company or products from opponents, aiming to
create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components
that form a brand’s toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication
(such as by logos and trademarks), brand awareness, brand
loyalty, and various branding (brand management) strategies. Name
brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands. It is
therefore not just the physical features that create a brand but
also the feelings that consumers develop towards the company’s product.
This combination of physical and emotional cues is triggered when exposed
to the name, the logo, the visual identity, or even the message communicated. A
product can be easily copied by other players in a market, but a brand will
always be unique. For example, Pepsi and Coca-Cola taste very similar, however
for some reason, some people feel more .Branding is the process of giving a meaning
to specific products by creating and shaping a brand in consumers’ minds. It is
a strategy designed by companies to help people to quickly identify their
products and organization, and give them a reason to choose their products over
the competition’s, by clarifying what this particular brand is and is not
connected to Coca-Cola, others to Pepsi.

All the works related to a product,
service, company, or person is “brand identity.” Some of these items are the
name, logo, tone, tagline, typeface, and shape that create an
appeal. Brand identity is a separate category from brand image.

Brand identity is the message the
consumer receives from the product, person, or thing. The brand identity will
connect product recognition. 

The essential thing in branding is
clarity of what is being offered, whether it is a product, service or person.
Image and consistency play a huge role in branding. Branding is the big plan.
It describes the expected results of a product or individual.

If a brand is the
relationship, then a logo is a projection of that relationship. In other words,
a logo works to point a customer back to the larger organization on the whole
and reflect the relationship that organization has with their audience.
Although logos are common, they are just a single expression an organization
can use towards this effort.

 There has a growing
stream of research focusing on the application of rhetorical figures in
advertising. Rhetoric is an interpretive theory that frames a message as an
interested party’s attempt to influence an audience. The sender’s theory that
frames a message as an interested party’s attempt to influence an audience
intention is understood to be manifest in the argument, the evidence, the order
of argumentation, and the style of delivery. The formal elements are selected
according to the sender’s expectations about how the audience will approach the
genre, the speaker, and the topic (Burke 1969; Corbett 1965)

For in depth
research I have taken 10 brands with its topmost selling product.
Another important factor is that classic rhetoric considers the whole human
nature and soul as sources of persuasive appeals. Aristotle, one of the ancient
and most important rhetoric theorists, named three rhetoric appeals or proofs
which can be used in order to influence other people: Ethos, pathos and logos.

Ethos – ethos is an attempt to catch
someone’s attention by using ethics or moral appeal.

Pathos – is an emotional appeal to
someone’s feelings, like fear or love.

Logos –is a logical appeal that
tries to persuade the reader with facts and statistics.

 

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