Childhood
Obesity and Its Effects on Population Health

Alayna
Groce

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Columbia
Southern University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Childhood
Obesity and Its Effects on Population Health

When
it comes to decision making, a child’s weight seems to spark some disagreement.
This paper is composed of two research articles that discuss how stoutness is
taking over young adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to bring reference
to childhood obesity and some of the social factors that contribute to the
disease.  It also will discuss how it is
becoming a growing ethical concern in public health practice and epidemiology
studies.  Last the paper discusses what
regulations policy makers have in place to make prevention less controversial.

Summary

Social
Factors

Sahoo
et al. (2015) found that, Socio-traditional variables have additionally been
found to impact the growth of being overweight. Our public tend to utilize
nourishment as a reward, to control others, and as a component of socializing
(as cited in Budd & Hayman, 2008, 113-7). Sahoo et al. (2015) argue that these
services of nourishment can support the advance of unfortunate associations
with sustenance, in this manner expanding the danger of creating corpulence (as
cited in Moens, Braet, Bosmans & Rosseel, 2009).

Impact

Sahoo et al. (2015) argue that, The social
results of stoutness may add to proceeding with trouble in weight control.
Overweight adolescents tend to shield themselves from negative remarks and harsh
outlooks by withdrawing to safe spots, for example, their homes, where they may
look for nourishment as a solace. (as cited in Niehoff, 2009, p.17-23
Furthermore, kids who are overweight tend to have less companions than ordinary
weight kids, which brings about less social connection and play, and additional
time spent in inactive activities (as cited in Niehoff, 2009, p.17-23). 

As previously mentioned. Sahoo et al.
(2015) say, physical movement is frequently more troublesome for overweight and
stout kids as they tend to get shortness of breath and regularly experience
serious difficulties staying aware of their friends. This thus definitely
brings about weight pick up, as the measure of calories devoured surpasses the
measure of vitality burned (as cited in Niehoff, 2009, p.17-23). 

Family Impact

A
child’s parent(s) or guardian(s) can be another leading influence on obesity in
children. The food that a child has access to in the house can be an influence
on their overall health. Sahoo et al. (2015) found that, “Studies have shown
that having an overweight mother and living in a single parent household are
associated with overweight and childhood obesity” (as cited in Moens, Braet,
Bosmans & Rosseel, 2009).

Ethical
Considerations in Childhood Obesity

According
to Perryman & Sidoti (2015), When choosing which treatment alternative is
most valuable for the stout child, the essential thought is if the soundness of
the youngster is being traded off by the chubbiness. At that point the guardian
must decide the viability of other accessible weight reduction alternatives
lastly, the official limit of the tyke must be assessed. This implies the
child(adolescent) must know about the distinctive aspects of the counteractive
action occurring. Some of these preventions are as per the following: surgery
(alongside the perils and the advantages), the likelihood of the risks and
focal points happening, and the profound established duty regarding surgical
improvement (as cited in Gallagher, 2010, 231-234).

Perryman & Sidoti (2015) think
that, While the health care professional must determine if the child has this
ability, it is the parent or guardian who must give consent for the child. This
becomes problematic when parents and their children do not agree on surgery to
treat obesity (as cited in Pratt, Lenders, & Dionne,2009, p 901-910). Perryman
& Sidoti (2015) mention that, Parents may focus on the perceived negative
physical and psychological consequences of their child’s obesity and attempt to
persuade the child’s assent (as cited in Pratt, Lenders,
& Dionne,2009, p 901-910).

Ethical
Issue of Diagnosing Obesity

Perryman
& Sidoti (2015) mention that, Arranging kids as corpulent creates its own
arrangement of moral concerns. BMI, a proportion of weight to stature, has
generally been utilized to survey overweight in grown-ups and keeps on being
the most prominent standard for measuring stoutness. In any case, Perryman & Sidoti (2015) acknowledge that, As BMI
is currently reliably utilized for estimating the kid and youthful populace, it
has moved toward becoming scrutinized because of the physical development and
advancement expected in this group (as cited in Huerta, Gdalevich &
Tlashadze, 2007, p. 573-578).

Psychosomatic
Factors

Depression
and Anxiety

According
to Sahoo et al. (2015), A current review determined that a great number of
studies discovered a potential connection between eating conflicts and unhappiness
(as cited in Goldfield, 2010, p. 186-92). 
Moreover, Sahoo et al. (2015) state that in a clinical example of stout
young people, a higher life-time commonness of nervousness issue was accounted
for contrasted with non-fat controls (as cited in Britz, 2000, p. 1707-14).

Academic cost 

According
to Sahoo et al. (2015), Adolescence heftiness has additionally been found to
adversely influence school execution. An examination thinks about presumed that
overweight and fat youngsters were four times more inclined to report having
issues at school than their typical weight peers (Schwimmer, 2003, p. 1813-9). 

Policy Holders Roles and
Regulations

One
ethical concern that sparks debate is giving a child autonomy in deciding which
route is the best weight prevention for his/her body.  Sahoo et al. (2015) address that, independence,
or the privileges of patients to freely self-oversee and select alternatives in
view of their own desires, is relinquished as kids are not ready to settle on
wellbeing related decisions. Self-governance would enable the kid to make and
actualize an arrangement, and in addition effectively seek after that picked
predetermination (as cited in Gallagher, 2010, p. 231-234). Be that as it may,
legitimately and morally, that obligation tumbles to the parent. This raises
doubt about the parent’s capacity to settle on choices to the greatest
advantage of the corpulent kid, given the present wellbeing condition

According
to Perryman & Sidoti (2015) Nonmaleficence, or
to do no mischief, is another commitment helping experts need to forgo activities
that hazard harming patients. While examining treatment alternatives for the
stout tyke, which mediations do no damage? (as cited in Van et al., 2014). Perryman
& Sidoti (2015) state, There are changing degrees of physical, social, and
passionate, dangers related with pharmacotherapy, family-based treatment, and
bariatric surgery. The slightest obtrusive of these is family-based treatment
for adolescence heftiness; in any case, new research has discovered that parent
inspiration is a critical factor in this sort of intervention, as is parental
weight loss (as cited in Van et al., 2014& Hunter H, Steele R, Steele M, 2008).

While
conducting the research Perryman & Sidoti (2015) discovered that as helping
experts are setting up committed associations with families and patients, trust
is foremost. Devotion is expert when the treatment group adopts an extensive
strategy and sees how to best meet the fat youngster’s objectives toward weight
reduction and wellbeing advancement and completes on their dedication. The
family and youngster are likewise trusting in that group considering their
promoted learning, ability, and skill in the zone of pediatric weight treatment.
(as cited in Buchwald, 2005, p.593)

According
to Perryman & Sidoti (2015), Veracity, or
truthfulness, is an essential element of communication between patients,
families, and doctors and is imperative to the decision-making process when
choosing the best treatment option for the obese child (as cited in Caniano, 2009, p.190)

Analysis

After
the research provided by these two articles, it seems that childhood obesity is
becoming a more recognized topic in epidemiology. There seems to be an adequate
amount of information provided on the causes, and consequences of adolescents
with stoutness.  When reviewing these
articles, it seems there should be a discussion on lifting some regulations on
children making decisions for their health. It may be beneficial for the child to
choose and lift some ethical concern. There also seems to be more research needed
to provide a safer broader range of treatments for stout children. Perryman &
Sidoti (2015) state “while childhood obesity continues to be a physical,
emotional, and psychosocial issue impacting many families, there are limited
treatment options available” (Perryman & Sidoti,2015). Sahoo et al. 2015 mention
that “The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses
on the causes” Sahoo et al. 2015, p. 187-192).

Conclusion

To
conclude, the research that was provided from these articles thoroughly
discussed how obesity is affecting children within the populace. The research
also brought light to contributions in society that is potentially enabling
this disease to grow. However, there may need to be some adjustments made on a
child’s decision to choose what preventative measures and treatments they want
to undergo for a healthier lifestyle. This may help them not carry being
overweight into adulthood causing possible longevity in their lifespan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Britz B, Siegfried W, Ziegler A, Lamertz C,
Herpertz-Dahlmann BM, Remschmidt H, et al. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a
clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese
adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Int J Obes Relat
Metab Disord. 2000; 24:1707–14. 

Buchwald H. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity:
health implications for patients, health professionals, and third-party
payers. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200(4):593–604.

Budd GM, Hayman LL. Addressing the childhood
obesity crisis. Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2008; 33:113–7. PubMed

Caniano DA. Ethical issues in pediatric bariatric
surgery. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2009;18(3):186–192.

Gallagher
SM. What is the meaning of informed consent, weight loss surgery, and the
pediatric patient? Bariatr Nurs Surg Patient Care.
2010;5(3):231–234.

Goldfield
GS, Moore C, Henderson K, Buchholz A, Obeid N, Flament MF. Body
dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in
adolescents. J Sch Health. 2010; 80:186–92. PubMed

Huerta
M, Gdalevich M, Tlashadze A, et al. Appropriateness of US and international
BMI-for-age reference curves in defining adiposity among Israeli school
children. Eur J Pediartr. 2007;166(6):573–578.

Hunter
HL, Steele RG, Steele MM. Family based treatment for pediatric overweight:
parental weight loss as a predictor of children’s treatment success. Child
Health Care. 2008;37(2):112–125

Moens E, Braet C, Bosmans G, Rosseel Y.
Unfavourable family characteristics and their associations with childhood
obesity: A cross-sectional study. Eur Eat Disord
Rev. 2009; 17:315–23. PubMed

Niehoff
V. Childhood obesity: A call to action. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical
Patient. Care. 2009;4:17–23

Perryman,
M. L., & Sidoti, K. A. (2015, March 05). Full text Ethical considerations
in the treatment of childhood obesity | MB. Retrieved January 09, 2018, from https://www.dovepress.com/ethical-considerations-in-the-treatment-of-childhood-obesity-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-MB

Pratt
JS, Lenders CM, Dionne EA, et al. Best practice updates for
pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring).
2009;17(5):901–910

Sahoo,
K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, A. K., Sofi, N. Y., Kumar, R., & Bhadoria, A. S.
(2015). Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. Journal of Family
Medicine and Primary Care, 4(2), 187–192. http://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.154628

Schwimmer
JB, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health-related quality of life of severely obese
children and adolescents. JAMA. 2003; 289:1813–9. PubMed

Van
Allen J, Kuhl ES, Filigno SS, Clifford LM, Connor JM, Stark LJ. Changes in
parent motivation predicts changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI) and
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