Definitions of Domestic Violence:

Domestic violence is the intentional pressure, physical attack, sequences, sexual attack, and/or other offensive behavior between intimate partners when one partner in orderly pattern massive using of power and control committed against the other. Including physical, verbal, sexual, emotional, psychological, economical abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence fluctuates dramatically. (NCADV, 2011)

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The concerns about domestic violence

1.      Every minute; twenty people are physically abused by intimate partners, that means annually in the USA more than 10 million abuse victims (Black, et al. 2011).

2.      One in four men and one in three women have been physically abused by an intimate partner. (Black, et al. 2011).

3.      One of seven men and one of five women have been severely physically abused by an intimate partner. (Black, et al. 2011).

4.      Women between ages 18-24 are most common to intimate partner violence and 19% of violence involves a weapon (Black, et al.  2011).

 

Types of Domestic Violence

Ø  Physical Abuse: Whipping, smacking, pushing, grasping, biting, hair-pulling etc. Physical abuse also includes rejecting a partner medical care or pushing alcohol and/or drug use (Ricci, 2013).

Ø  Sexual Abuse: Forcing or trying to force any sexual interaction or behavior without agreement. Sexual abuse includes -but is definitely not limited to- married rape, occurrences on sexual parts of the body, coercing sex after physical violence has occurred, or handling one in a sexually demeaning manner (Ricci, 2013).

Ø  Emotional Abuse: Decline a personality’s nous of self-worth and/or self-esteem. This may include partial to, continuous criticism, increasing one’s capabilities, name-calling, or destructive one’s relationship with his or her children (Ricci, 2013).

Ø  Economic Abuse: Creating or trying to make an individual economically dependent by keeping total control over economic resources, withholding one’s access to money, or aggressive one’s presence at faculty or occupation (Ricci, 2013).

Ø  Psychological Abuse: Affecting fear by threats physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner’s family or friends; damage of stuff and pets; and separation from family, friends, or school and/or work (NDVH, 2011)

Ø  Spiritual abuse: Modifying the abuse with religion, not tolerating access to beliefs (NDVH, 2011).

 

WHO Facts about violence against women updated in November 2016:

Ø   Globally; the major public health problems and violations of human rights are intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women.

Ø  Global approximations available by WHO show that about 1 in 3 (35%) women worldwide have experienced any physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifespan.

Ø  Globally; nearly one third (30%) of women reported that they have experienced certain form of physical and/or sexual abuse by their intimate partner in their lifespan.

Ø  Globally, 38% of killed women are committed by their intimate partner.

Ø  Physical, spiritual, sexual and reproductive health of women, are negatively affected by violence and increase susceptibility to HIV.

Ø  Low education, child abuse or exposure to violence in the family, alcohol abuse, culture norms to accepting the violence and gender discrimination, are factors associated with increased risk of performance of violence.

 

Prevalence Data on Different Forms of Violence against Women in Jordan according to United Nation Women Jordan/ national survey 2012:

Ø  Physical and/or Sexual Intimate Partner Violence is 24 % among Jordanian women through there life span.

Ø   14 % of Jordanian women were Physically and/or Sexually Intimate Violated by Partner in the last 12 months.

Ø  There is no official National Statistics regarding Non-Partner Sexual Violence

 

 

Scope of the problem

A 2013 examination by WHO with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Medical Research Council, based on existing data from over 80 countries; found that (30%) of all women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner globally. The prevalence estimates range from 23.2% in high-income countries and 24.6% in the Western Pacific region to 37% in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region, and 37.7% in the South-East Asia region. Furthermore; worldwide as many as 38% of all murders of women are committed by intimate partners. Although data for this is more limited globally 7% of women report having been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner. The “WHO Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women” (2005) in 10 low- middle-income countries found that, women between age 15-49 are physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime. 0.3–11.5% of women stated sexual violence by someone other than a partner since the age of 15 years; the first sexual experience for many women was reported as forced, 24% in rural Peru, and 30% in rural Bangladesh reported that their first sexual experience was forced.

Intimate partner and sexual violence are mostly performed by men against women. Child sexual abuse affects both boys and girls. Global studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5–10% of men report being victims of sexual violence as children. Violence among young people, including dating violence, is also a major problematic issue.

 

Risk factors for both intimate partner and sexual violence by WHO 2016:

Ø  Low educational levels.

Ø  Child abuse.

Ø   Exposure to domestic violence at childhood.

Ø  Antisocial personality disorder.

Ø  Alcohol or Drug abuse.

Ø  Having multiple partners or suspected by their partners of unfaithfulness.

Ø  Attitudes, cultural and social norms that are accepting of violence and gender inequality

Health consequences

Violence against women may lead to fatal outcomes like homicide or suicide.

Intimate partner violence and sexual violence can lead to unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, gynecological complications, and sexually transmitted infections (Pallitto, et al.2013).

Intimate partner violence in pregnancy also increases the likelihood of miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-term delivery and low birth weight babies (Campbell, 2002).

The intimate partner violence lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts (Karakurt, Smith, & Whiting 2014).

 

 

Impact on children

Children who grow up in families where there is violence may suffer a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances. These can also be associated with perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life.

Intimate partner violence has also been associated with higher rates of infant and child mortality and morbidity (e.g. diarrhea disease, malnutrition) (Dube, et al. 2002)

Social and economic costs

The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are enormous and have ripple effects throughout society. Women may suffer isolation, inability to work, loss of wages, lack of participation in regular activities and limited ability to care for themselves and their children (Waters, et al .2004)

Prevention and response

  WHO 2016 after growing number of experimental studies that examined the effectiveness of prevention and response programs recommended the primary prevention, dependent on effectiveness results from developing countries that school-based programmers to prevent violence within dating relationships. Still, these programs have yet to be assessed for use in developed countries. Other primary prevention strategies include the economic empowerment of women by gender equality training; that encourage communication and relationship skills within partners and communities; and decrease access to alcohol; and change the cultural gender norms.

 

Conclusion and recommendation:

 Appropriate assessment and managements provided by health care providers and the health sector will play an important role in the prevention of violence. Education programs for health care providers and other service providers will be an important strategy to address wholly consequences of violence.

 Achieving the needs of victims/survivors requires a multi-sectorial response and cooperation to:

Ø  Report discrimination against women

Ø  Encourage gender equality

Ø  Support women

Ø  Assistance to change to peaceful cultural norms.

Ø  Put strategies to increase women’s economic and social empowerment, like microfinance combined with gender equality training and community-based creativities that speech about gender inequality and relationship skills.

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