Development can be described as a systematic use of technical, and scientific knowledge. Development intends to meet the needs and objectives required for proper policy planning and implementation. (Rhoda Reddock,2000), suggests that paradigm shift has taken place on this notion of development. Reddock, further suggests that development only began to discuss the concerns of women in the 1970’s.Prior to sustainable development we had millennium development goals; Sustainable development goals were first adopted in 2000 to produce by products of the 17 goals by 2015.The Sustainable development goals have a more ambitious agenda. In addition to reducing poverty, these development goals seek to eliminate poverty, improve education and health care. Sustainable development goals are about empowerment, demanding more from policy makers to be agents of change. Millennium development goals are eight development goals that range from haulting extreme poverty rates to having global partnership for development.(UNAIDS).
One major difference with sustainable development goals and millennium development goals is that the sustainable development goals deal with 17 different issues and are to play a major role in policy making of UN nations. They act as the successor to the Millennium Development Goals, and to gather momentum in terms of overall development. The new SDG goals set targets that call all countries to action, no matter how developed the country is. The MDGs were determined by a small team of technical experts at the headquarters of the United Nations. However the SDGs were agreed upon by an open working group composed of 30 members who collectively represented 70 different countries across the world.(UNAIDS 2012).The goals and targets were officially agreed by heads of state and government and high-level representatives at the United Nations General Assembly on 25-27 September 2015 at the UN headquarters in New York(Coonrod 2014).One of the main difference between the two is that the SDGs are regarded as drastic improvements to the MDGs while looking at the past results of the MDG, According to the United nations the MDG fail to consider the root causes of poverty and fall short of considering the holistic nature of development while the SDGs cover topics from consumption to global trade and are considered to be better equipped to handle coming challenges as well as those currently.
Sustainable development goals are inclusive. They address persons with disabilities and those in vulnerable situations. According to the United Nations six targets refer to people in vulnerable situations, while seven targets are universal and two refer to non-discrimination. The MDGs were created through a top-down process while SDG where created from a bottom up process. Bottom up process is processing information as it comes in to find a better solution to issue whereas top down process is identifying the issue and working on prior knowledge to solve it instead of going to the actual issue to get better information to solve it. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes having face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries rather than being determined once more by a small technical team at the United Nations headquarters.
According to the United Nations the MDGs focused on quantity only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education and learning and the role education plays in achieving a more humane world. They try to promote education for sustainable development, sustainable lifestyle, human rights and the promotion of peace and culture across the world as all are contributions to sustainable development. Broucher (2015)stated that “sustainable development goals will operate on a more universal scale compared to millennium development goals, MDG only focused on how a developed country could finance improvements in developing nations while SDG aim to developing all nations and eradicating all forms of poverty in developed and developing nations”. Since eradicating poverty is the key goal of both SDG and MDG there must be a universal platform to be able to speak to all countries of all levels of economic development to ensure everyone is at the same stage in the end.
Both MDG and SDG share the same targets of eliminating poverty. Sustainable development goals targets to end all forms of poverty everywhere on a more expansive platform. Eradicating poverty in all forms is the greatest global challenge and a requirement for sustainable development. Poverty eradication is addressed in Chapter II of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), which stressed that eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing countries. SDG plans on having a poverty free world by 2030, according to UNAIDS there are 700 billion people today living in extreme poverty and struggling to find basic needs such as health, education, access to water and sanitation.High rates of unemployment, social exclusion and high vulnerability to disasters, diseases and other situations results in these high poverty rates. According to the United Nations “an overwhelming majority of people living below the poverty line belong to two regions: Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa”, it is in these party that they suffer drastically from high unemployment and access to health.
Poverty defined by the world health organization “is associated with the undermining of a range of key human attributes, including health. The poor are exposed to greater personal and environmental health risks, are less well nourished, have less information and are less able to access health care; they thus have a higher risk of illness and disability. Conversely, illness can reduce household savings, lower learning ability, reduce productivity, and lead to a diminished quality of life, thereby perpetuating or even increasing poverty”. In the agenda to end all forms of poverty. SDG has seven target goals which they will use to combat the issue of poverty. According to the united nations development programme (UNDP) “By 2030 the aim is to, reduce poverty at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions implementing nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, achieving substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, as well as including microfinance, building the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters while ensuring significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation. In order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.
In conclusion Sustainable development goals expand on millennium development goals. On September 25th 2015, countries adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030.The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals, a set of 17 integrated and indivisible goals that build on the achievements of the MDGs but are broader, deeper and far more ambitious in scope. Sustainable development goals first focus is on poverty, the target ensures that all men women, boys and girls and the vulnerable have economic access to resources and basic needs to be able to uplift themselves from the poverty line.