Education is an important factor
both in the day-to-day success of the child and in contributing to the
personal, social, cultural and economic fulfillment of the future adult. Primary
Education in Pakistan aims to develop each child’s potential to
the full, encourage a love of learning and help children to develop their
skills that they will use all their lives. The primary stage of education is of
prime importance for the building of career. This stage enables a child to
raise a standard of his/her personality.
Primary Education in Pakistan is accepted as a
basic right of everyone both at national and international level. The
constitution of Islamic
Republic of Pakistan, 1973
clearly lays down the provision in Article 37 (b) that:
state of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory
primary and secondary education within the minimum
Parental involvement in the studies of children at
primary level is very important because at this students are more interested in
their studies. They try to find more and more knowledge. They need guidance at
every step of their academic decisions. Parents
have to guide them through participating with them in their educational activities
i.e helping them with their homework or in the understanding of the concepts.
According to Gullatt (1997, p. 36), the involvement of the parents is a good
thing for student’s academic achievement. Green (1992) called parents as
supporters and active partners as well.
of the Problem
Parental Involvement plays a very important role in the academic achievement of
students. Parental involvement is a key to nourish and grooming of the child.
Parenting is a process in which children are taught from birth till adulthood.
(Keith, 1986) Schools should arrange
programs for parents to participate in and become the part of the students’
education and become a supporter of them.
The following research question will guide
Is there any positive or negative
relationship between parental involvement
and students’ achievement at primary level?
The study will be conducted to:
the relationship of parental involvement
and students’ achievement in the subject of English at the primary level.
the relationship of parental involvement
and students’ achievement in the subject of Mathematics at the primary level.
of the Study
purpose of this study is to define how much the parents are involved in the
studies of their children and what does the role
their involvement play in the achievement
of their students in the subject of English and Mathematics.
of the Study
This study will ensure that parental involvement is very important for the
students’ achievements. It will aware the school teachers and the administrators that PTM should be arranged at
primary level so may the parents have a better
understanding of students’ performance in the curricular and co-curricular
activities. The relationship between
teachers, students, and the parents will
be strong by this study. This study will allow the stakeholders to identify the effective
and specific strategies to increase parental involvement.
This study will be delimited to the fifth-grade students
of Govt. Primary School Lahore and their parents respectively.
of the Terms
Parent: The definition includes not only
biological parents but also guardians, aunt and uncles grandparents, and siblings
who are involved in the school for the
benefit of a specific student.
refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schooling
and her child’s life.
Academic Achievement: The definition of academic achievement refers to
the level of schooling you have
successfully completed and the ability to attain success in your studies.
ReviewReview of the
purpose of the literature review will be to explore parental involvement
definitions, the relationship between
parental involvement and academic success in the previous studies, the impact of parental involvement
factors on academic success, and barriers to parent involvement.
of the Parental Involvement
Parental involvement in the schools
indicates the participation of parents in the academic activities of their students. Participation in the PTMs, support days, result
days etc. parental involvement encourages the students to learn best. The
proper definition of parental involvement is as under:
involvement is reading to preschool children. It is getting children ready for
school every morning. It is volunteering at the school. It is serving on
collaborative decision making committees,
and it is lobbying legislatures to advocate for children” (Jesse, 1996, p.
involvement and Academic Achievement in
the previous studies
How parental involvement influences school
outcomes, namely the third level in Hoover Dempsey and Sandler’s (1997) model,
was the main focus of McNeal (1999). McNeal (1999) argued that the involvement
of parents in their child’s education influences student outcomes through three
mechanisms. The first mechanism, socializing, refers to home-based involvement,
such as supervising homework, by which parents emphasize the importance of
schooling. Generating social control through school-based involvement is the second
mechanism; school-based involvement offers parents the opportunity to develop
relationships with teachers and other parents, and in discussing their child’s
behavior, to learn from them. The last mechanism is having access to insider
information by communicating with the school. By this mechanism, parents will
be, for example, earlier and better informed about the available solutions in
instances of learning or behavioral problems. McNeal’s theory specifies different
outcomes for the three mechanisms: socialization and social control affect the
attitude, motivation, and behavior of the
student while having access to insider
information has a direct effect on both
cognitive and behavioral student outcomes (McNeal 1999).
The Impact of
Parental Involvement Factors on Academic Success
family traditions have been significant factors contributory to children’s
academic achievement. These factors, as investigated by Clark (1983), take
account of valuing schooling and inviting
a sense of self-importance in school, setting up specific daily and weekly
family habits, establishing family responsibilities and household tasks, and
closely managing and monitoring children’s use of prearranged and formless
encouraging reading, talking with children about everyday incidences,
discussion with children about school add to academic success. Visiting the
school and turning out to be a supporter, encouraging children and families to
build up hobbies and supplementary activities, and finally, spending excellence
family time together are factors that also donate to children’s academic
achievement of the learners depends on many factors. Parenting practices are among
those factors. The higher the parenting practices are rightly used or applied,
the higher the possibility of the learners getting good results, and
Barriers to Parent Involvement
A number of barriers
to parent involvement have been identified in the previous studies. The
National PTA (1996) defines the greatest shared barriers as the lack of time,
not being valued, and not knowing how to contribute. Additional barriers to
parent involvement contain not understanding the educational system, childcare
problems, language, cultural changes, and transportation problems.
Additionally, parents often do not feel welcomed. Little literacy levels,
educational verbiage, superciliousness, boring meetings, and parents who have
unmet requirements themselves are also barriers to parent involvement.