France

 In France,
there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.
Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g per
kilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to €6300. This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVs and
FCVs).  Vehicles with CO2 emissions
between 21 and 60 g/km are eligible for
a bonus covering 20% of their purchase price up to EUR 4000. This category includes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissions
above 131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,000
3637 38.

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France has a
national implementation plan based on a cluster model approach 39.
This approach is deployed in three
phases. In the first phase, infrastructure development is focused on local fleets in the early years. In that sense, HRSs
and FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This method
guarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of the
project 39.

In this
method, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns which
make regular visits to a refueling station are
defined in a cluster. Then one or multiple HRSs are responsible for supporting a cluster.

Figure 1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-
method considered in France’s HRS planning 39

In the second phase, clusters are linked together, and in
the third phase, FCV full-scale
commercialization is pursued.

A considerable
amount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from European
funding. A European funding for three
hydrogen refueling stations in Rodez,
Sarreguemines, and Paris under the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with the
balance met by private sector companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène France
coalition, is secured. Another European funding of 4M EUR is from the
Connecting Europe Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the Normandy
region 40.

In France, financial incentives can take the form of a
tax credit equivalent to 30% of a home charger or subsidies for the
installation of residential or workplace chargers 19.

French environmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers
50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for
rapid charge points if the chargers are publicly available.

The “Ville de demain” project run by the French
environmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers 50% of costs for normal and fast
charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for rapid charge points, as
long as these meet the criteria of being publicly available 41.

As of November
2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42. Table
15 shows the number of charging points in France from
2012 to 2016.

Table 15. Number of charging points in France
(2012-2016) 19

Year

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Publicly accessible slow chargers

800

1700

1700

10122

14612

Publicly accessible fast chargers

9

102

127

543

1231

Total

809

1802

1827

10665

15843

 

As of November
2016, there were 130 FCVs in France 42. Table
16
shows BEV and PHEV stock in France from 2012 to 2016.

Table 16. BEV and PHEV stock in France (2012-2016) 19

year

Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
 

2012

 9.29 (93%
BEV, 7% PHEV)

2013

18.91 (92% BEV, 8% PHEV)

2014

31.54 (89% BEV, 11% PHEV)

2015

54.49(83% BEV, 17% PHEV)

2016

84 (80% BEV, 20% PHEV)

 

Table
17 shows France’s target for FCV and HRSs through
2030 42.

Table 17. France’s target for FCV and HRSs through
2030 51

Year

2018-2019

2030

FCVs

1000

800,000

HRSs

100

600

 

France’s target for the number of electric vehicles is between 1 and 2 million by 2020 22. France has also announced that it is ending the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040.

UK

The UK government provides incentives for the purchase of six
categories of vehicles 44.

Category
one cars are cars that have CO2 emissions of less than 50g/km and
can travel at least 112km without any CO2 emissions. The grant
considered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to a
maximum of GBP1 4,500.
Category one car models include BEVs of: BMW i3,
BYD e6, Citroen CZero, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai IONIQ Electric, Kia Soul
EV, Mercedes-Benz
B-Class Electric Drive, Nissan e-NV200 (5-seater and 7-seater), Nissan LEAF,
Peugeot iON, Renault Fluence, Renault ZOE, Smart fortwo electric drive, Smart
forfour electric drive, Tesla Model S, Tesla Model X, Volkswagen e-up!,
Volkswagen e-Golf and FCV model of Toyota
Mirai.

 

 

Category two vehicles have CO2 emissions of less
than 50g/km and can travel at least 16km without any CO2 emissions. The grant
considered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to a
maximum of GBP 2,500.

Category two car models include PHEVs of: BMW 225xe, BMW 330e, BMW 530e, Hyundai IONIQ
PHEV, Kia Niro PHEV, Kia Optima PHEV, Mercedes-Benz C350 e (with 17 inch rear
wheels), Mercedes-Benz E350 e SE, MINI Countryman PHEV, Mitsubishi Outlander
(except Commercial), Toyota Prius Plug-in, Vauxhall Ampera, Volkswagen Golf
GTE, Volkswagen Passat GTE, Volvo V60 D5 Twin Engine, Volvo V60 D6 Twin Engine,
Volvo XC90 T8 Twin Engine Momentum (2017 model year only), and Audi A3 e-tron.

Category 3 vehicles have CO2
emissions of 50 to 75g/km and can travel at least 32km without any CO2
emissions. The grant considered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of
purchase cost up to a maximum of GBP 2,500.
This category of vehicles includes Mercedes-Benz E350 e AMG Line which
is a PHEV.

1
Exchange rate for GBP in December 6th, 2017 is 1 G ~ 1.34 USD

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