I wrote this report because it is one of the many steps involved in the science fair. I will be writing about conductivity, electrical circuits, resistance, and effects of temperature and salinity. All things related to my project: what material conducts the best? These things are all related to my project as resistance controlled the electrons speed as it flows through a conductor/resistor. As of electrical circuits, it is only a basic research component as my project essentially is a circuit itself. I chose to research the influence of temperature on conductivity because I am aware that increase of a solutions temperature, causes ions to flow more freely so I thought if there would be any other properties. Along with all my current topics, I also chose to investigate salinity’s effect of conductivity on a liquid. I chose this because I simply assumed that salinity would be a factor of liquid/solution conductivity as I once saw that chemicals in a solution directly affect the conductivity of it.    Electrical resistivity is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes. Resistivity is measured by ohms?. Electrons often encounter semi or non-conductive materials which causes resistance. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity itself is the movement of electrically charged particles. Often in metals, conductivity varies in the presence of the valence electron. Valence electrons are located on the outer shell of an atom and are free to move about. As the valence electron free to all sorts of motion, it can travel along the lattice that forms the structure of a metal. The most speed efficient metal is one whose physical property is of a SINGLE valence electron. Some examples are Gold, Copper, and Silver.    An electrical circuit is a loop of electrical elements conjoined together. Professional engineers often use symbols to illustrate a circuit. Some elements included a common circuit are sources, capacitors, inductors, and so on. A common power source is called a battery. Batteries store electricity in a chemical state inside a shut energy system. Some batteries can be recharged and used again. A benefit of battery usage instead of renewable energy is that renewable energy depends on the force of nature whereas battery develope constant energy generation. Also, batteries are a more reliable source in case of an emergency where power from a generator is not applicable. The battery is an important part of the modern person and often they don’t realize! Without the battery, there would be no laptops, phones, watches or any device not plugged in your wall. The battery is now 200 years old. There are many types of batteries, all for a particular use. A capacitor is often used to store energy like a relay system. They are usually used in speakers in its subwoofer as the woofer requires strong pulses of energy.    Of course, any living, breathing, or mobile object depends on one basic property: energy. Every time someone moves or changes energy is the root of it. Energy moves cars, heats our homes lights up rooms and provide a place to cook. One form of energy can always be changed in another form. A simple example is that when the sun is shining on the earth, light energy is being converted into heat energy. When we turn of a flashlight, for example, chemically stored energy is being converted into light energy. The heart of all energy originates from the big star which the earth orbits around: the sun. This simple fact may be hard to believe but really the sun’s energy is only being stored in a ‘dormant’ form in a physical object like batteries or gasoline and when those physical objects are consumed usually by burning it.    The conductivity of a solution changes by added or lessened salinity is actually quite a simple term. Sodium is a very good conductor and therefore when salt, a material with high amounts of sodium, is mixed with a solution it drastically improves the conductivity. This concept may be small but is very important. Most freshwater animals can only survive within a certain salinity range. If this level changes, they may die. Salinity is usually measured PPT(parts per thousand) or in measuring case, grams per liter. For example, seawater contains 35 PPT which is equivalent to 35 grams a liter. In conclusion, the higher PPT, the better it conducts.    An increase in the temperature of a material will lower its viscosity which essentially frees the ions in the object to free movement. This is caused by a dissociation of molecules in the conductor. Based on this, the higher the temperature is, the better it will conduct    My responding variable is the number of volts collected on each test.I will find the amount using a multimeter. A volt is a unit used to measure the amount of electricity conducted.    I think I have learned quite a lot of interesting and relevant facts on conductivity. I have mastered the properties of conductivity such as salinity,temp., and batteries. This will help me on my project because I can conduct a well-boosted experiment and do so with loads of confidence and mastery.

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