LAMPEDO case study

Background information

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1996

2008

1..

G
overnance and leadership

Following concerns about the long

term financial stability of Lampedo and the perceived
inertia of its leadership,, the regional authorities promulgated a
new

University Law

in

1996..
The main pillars were a

stronger vice

chancellor and S
trategic Management Team
(
with
responsibility of
organizational res
tructuring,, hiring//llaying off

staff
)

and
the establishment of a

board of
governors
to oversee the university

activities
, strateg
y and
long

term
sustainability..

The

board of
governors

comprised

externally appointed

members

and

internal
ly

elected
representatives of the different personnel categories
. It was designed to balance and
oversee

stronger powers of newly established
SMT..

It

was composed of nineteen members,,
ten nominated by the government,,
including

the president,, and nine elected internally

by
university staff
.

In 2002,, the
regional
government was
preoccupied
about

the perceived unsatisfactory
implementation of institution
al autonomy

and the still inexistent new strategy.. It then

produced a new law,, reinforcing further the power of the
vice

chancellor

by delegating
them
budgeting
and appointment of SMT
. The
old
academic
board (iinternally elected
representatives))

was suppres
sed,, in
the

attempt to ease the decision making line and avoid
the
vice

chancellor

to report to two different supervisory bodies.. Additionally,, in 2001,, the
regional
parliame
nt approved the

creation of the
faculty of E
conomics,, which was

separated
from the

faculty of L
aw..

Meanwhile,, the usual 4

year
vice

chancellor office
was interrupted by an interim period,, as
the

(ssecond))

new act required different appointing procedures to be fulfilled..

Based on four faculties and a high number of institutes representi
ng the chairs,, the internal
structure of
L
ampedo

was
reorganized

also

frequently
. The
vice

chancellor and SMT

w
ere
reorganized in 2001 and,, further on,, in 2008..
With the first University Act

additional new
positions of
pro vice//cchancellors
were created,, wh
ile
with
the second
University
Act

these
positions were reorganized and

competences and

tasks were redistributed..

In spite of the
pressing
requests made by public authorities,, from 199
6 to 2004
Lampedo did
not create any

strategic document
. A
so

called “PP
lan of I
ntentions 2005

2007

was
established by the new
vice

chancellor
arrived in 2004,,
and was
subsequently approved
internally,, by the senate and the
board of governors,, and externally,, by regional

government..
This

strategy
pointed to

p
ortfolio restruct
uring in the fields of
both
education and research,,
as well as changes in recruitment procedures and personnel regulations.. This plan aimed
mainly
to reorient Lampedo

towards disciplines with high numbers of students by favo
uring
in particular
the
Social S
ciences and reorganizing those

disciplines

with fe
w undergraduate
students,, i..ee.. Humanities and Science
.
However,, the vice

chancellor

was abruptly laid off by
the
regional
government at the beginning of 2007 for diverging visions on the future of the
univ
ersity and in parti
cular of the Faculty of S
cience
. It was then the turn of a second interim

SMT,,

taken over by a professor com
ing from the faculty of science
s
, who remained in place
until 2008,, when a rector,, also from sciences,, was finally appointed

acco
rding to regulations
.

In

2007,, a new strategic plan was released by an interim
SMT shifting away from previously
indicated
downsizing
of parts of the university
.
The newly appointed vice

chancellor devised
a

third strategic plan

by means of extensive cons
ultations within the institution..

The

deans continued to be elected within their faculties,, generally on a two

year term,,
in
order to represent all discipline specializations
.

2..

Educational provision

T
he evolution of curricula
at Lampedo

shows that,, diff
erently from
other national universities
,
the Bologna reform

(33++22))

was introduced later and slowly.. On
the
one
hand
, the
reorganization of programs in terms of bachelor and master was postponed of two years and
started in 2004//22005.. On the other
hand
, the
evolution of the number of bachelor
specializations

and of masters show
s that Lampedo
was able to diversify and rebuild new
curricula according to the new
strategic
priorities in
the Social S
ciences and in
disctinctive

fields of
the natural
sciences,, like
for example the masters in plant biology and
hydrogeology,, geothermal power..

Teaching portfolio

96

97

00

01

04

05

08

09

4

year curricula

4

5

5

0

4

year curricula

specializations

17

8

0

Bachelor

0

0

3

4

Bachelor

specializations

0

0

10

26

Master

0

0

9

26

The number of bachelor and master

programmes

reflects the downsizing of the faculty of
sciences,, which took place between 2004 and 2008,,
equally
, it displays the expansion of
the
Social S
ciences,,
which

could diversify their educatio
nal offer to cope
with increasingly large
r
numbers of students..

L
ampedo

participated to a certain number of institutionalized partnerships

with neighbouring
universities
in order to pool resources

(sstudents and finances))
.
All these asso
ciations
focused ma
inly on post

graduate education..

Students

96

97

00

01

04

05

08

09

Total
(FFTE))

3388

3135

3296

3762

4

year
degree

2844

2550

1898

490

B
achelor

0

0

737

1824

Master

0

0

135

796

d
octorate

452

500

428

568

other

92

85

98

The

number of students stagnated for most of the years considered.. However
,

distinctions
ha
ve to be made among faculties:: Social Sciences,, Economics and L
aw attracted increasing
numbers of students:: from 2004 to 2008 students in humanities and social sc
iences
grew by
8%% to 1823,, Economics 112%% to 541,, L
aw 66%% to 617..
Sciences

diminished
by
5%% to 722..

At the beginning
of the years 2000,, the idea of requiring
a minimum number of students for
program

(NN==220))

in order to receive
national

subsidies started t
o be discussed..
Although no
decision was ever taken
by public authorities
, this had several implications for
Lampedo
, as
chairs were closed (llike Greek and Italian)) and others
were

under pressure..

Degree types

by discipline

Humanities

Social
Sciences

Economics

Law

Experimental
Natural
Sciences

Mechanic
Engineering

As
%
of Lampedo

s
total
degrees
:

2000

21

18

18

19

23

2

2008

26

23

11

13

22

4

As
%

of national total degrees
:

2000

4

4

3

5

5

1

2008

5

2

1

3

4

1

3..

Research portfolio

T
he successful but expensive Faculty of Sciences had very low enrolments.. A
fter 2005,, the
university was
required to devise a strategy to

limit these costly activities:: the new
vice

chancellor
proposed

to give priority on disciplines with large numbers of students and to
concentrate on selected poles of excellence in research,, like plant biology and micro

technique

engineering
.

It was primarily for these reasons that the conflict between the rectorate
and the
regional
government broke out:: the first supporting the institute of micro

technique (IIMT)) as the main
building block for
Lampedo’s
research
profile
, the second convinced that a transfer of the
latter
to another university

would release the necessa
ry resources to develop

other
more
promising
disciplines..

Excerpt from interview::


The stakes were high.. IMT was declining in terms of resources,, doctoral students,, quality of
professors.. In such a situation you can 1)) find money to finance your further development,,
which was

impossible,, there was no political will 2)) establish an alliance with an institution
with a network of international excellence (wwhich was the position inside the institute))..

Competitive research funding

1996

2000

2004

2008

Total million

9.6

11.4

16.5

16.1

Share
of
Lampedo

s

budget

1
0.5

10.8

13.2

11.7

Share

at
national
level

3
.88

4.5

4.7

3.8

Doctoral degrees

1996

2000

2004

2008

PhD

(NN))

60

50

46

64

Share
of
Lampedo

s

degrees

1
3.1

13.3

16.1

Share at national
lev
el

2.2

1.8

1.6

2.0

The national average of doctoral degrees//ttotal degrees for research

intensive universities
was 15%%..

National
centres of excellence

(NNCEs))

represented
an important strategic
and financial
instrument created by the
National Science F
oundation

in 2001,, with the purpose
to
establish poles o
f excellence at national level and
to
boost

critical mass by university
cooperation

in research
.
The acquisition of an
N
CEs

represent
ed

therefore an important
indicator for research
excellence and scale
,
as well as

institutionalization of interdisciplinary
research activities.. In 2001
L
ampedo

acquired
an NCE

in P
lant B
iology,,
leading
a
consortium

including
other (llarger))
national
universities..

L
ampedo

was the only

small

university in
the country to

able to obtain
an NCE
.

4..

Human resource management

T
he evolution of staff at
L
ampedo

shows different patterns that are not always coherent with
the strategy planned and that indicates how balance among faculties was difficult to achieve..
The period between 1996 and 2008 marks a stagnation of personnel,, par
ticularly with
respect to professors,,
lecture
rs

and intermediate corps.. Only the technical and
administrative
body,, from its lowest of 170 FTE

in 2000,, increased
up
to 269

FTE

in 2008..
There are several factors that could explain this evolution:: first,, a trend tow
ards
growth

of the
central services was detectable from 2004 with the arrival of the new rector..
It is also
possible

that
several
researchers
at the Faculty of Sciences

were recruited

under the label of
laboratory
technical staff
.

The distribution of professors according to faculties did

n
o
t re
flect
student numbers
: a
t
H
umanities,, professors grew from 40%% in 1996 to almost 50%% in 2008
.

A
t

S
ciences they
decreased by almost 10
% but still represent
ing

one third

of
all

professors
, while at
E
conomics and L
aw professors represented less than 10%%,,
in spite of the fact that

in 2008
students

in those faculties

constituted one third of
total enrolments
.

University staff

1996

2000

2004

2008

Tot
al

staff
FTE

723

817

805

817

P
rof
essors

104

107

113

103

Lecturers

37

49

41

40

Intermediate
corps

384

482

417

404

Technical and
administra
tive

198

179

235

269

5..

Finances

A
s
in the case of
research and human resources
, also the patterns concerning
finances and
funding at
Lampedo

display some incoherence..

Even
though the university

faced severe pressure
s

from its
funding
public
authorities

in order
to contain expenditures and was repeatedly invited to allocate more efficiently its resources,,
these demands were only partially
accommodat
ed.. E
xcept for establishing some
coordination with neighbo
u
r universities on
post

graduate

programs,, no major action was
taken to
ma
nage more efficiently and

reorient core research activities

at least

until 2005..

In fact Lampedo

continued to ask and receive a yearly linear i
ncreasing budget,, whose
allocation was based on internal
power
balances

(SSciences and Humanities being at the
receiving end))

and traditional modes of expe
nditure according to faculties..

Funding sources

1996

2000

200
4

2
008

Tot
al

budget

(mmillion))

92.3

105.5

125.2

137.7

N
ational

governme
nt

1
8.3

18.7

24.8

25.4

R
egional

government

3
4.6

41.9

43.7

47.7

Inter

regional
funding
(sstudent

numbers))

10.5

11.5

13.4

14.8

Third means

26.7

29.9

40.1

45.5

Student f
ees

1.8

2.1

2.3

2.6

L
ampedo

s

global budget
grew incrementally,,

with the exception of 2000 (ffrom 107 in 1999
to 105,5)) and 2003 (ffrom
120,9 in 2002 to 120,3)).. How
ever,,

signif
icant

differences
can be
seen
according to

types of sources.. On the one

hand
,

national and inter

regional

sources
reflected until 2002 the stagnating numbers of students,, increasing again
in

2008;; on the
other hand,, third means

(
mostly

from research activit
ies))
, with some drawbacks in 2000 and
2006,, augmented form 26,7 to 45,5 (228,9
%

to 33%%))..
Government

s lump sums

increased
between 3%% and 8%% per year from 1996 to 2001,,
and were mirrored by

a linear
augmentation of human resources
.

Although the new
2004

strategy was formally accepted by the
board of governors and

by the
government
,
Lampedo

continued to remain under pressure when external demands and
(nnew)) resour
ce constraints obliged the
SMT

to delay a certain number of planned
professorial
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