MSc Engineering Project

6E7Z2120

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Sandile
MPANDE

Id: 16060873

MSC
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

 

 

  

Preliminary
Project Report

                                                                     

Supervised
by DR OLAWOLE KUTI

                             

 

 

Table of Contents

                                                                                      

Aim(s) and Objectives……………………………………………….…………………….      1

Introduction………….……………………………………………….…………………….     2

Novelty
of the project ……………………………………….……….……………………..    

A
Preliminary Literature Survey……………………………………………………………

Proposed Approach and
Methodology……………………………………………………………………….

Evaluation and Testing Methods……………………………………………………………

Economic, legal, social, ethical and
environmental Considerations………………………..

Project Management…………………………………………………………………………

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….   10

 

References                                                                                                                             R-1

Appendix A   Acronyms                                                                                                       A-1 

Appendix
B    Gantt
chart                                                                                                    B-1

Appendix
C   Estimation
of Project Cost                                                                           C-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aim

To Redesign and Manufacture
an existing manually operated monitor 3″ waterway in view to improve the cost
price of the monitor, improve performance and acquire external certification.

Objectives

·        
To
carryout value analysis of the current design.

·        
To
analyse and summarize the required technical improvements.

·        
To
re-design the monitor components that makes the monitor assembly.

·        
To
analyse and improve pressure-flow characteristics of the monitor using computer
fluid dynamics software (CFD).

·        
To
carryout structural integrity of the monitor using finite element analysis
(FEA).

·        
To
manufacture and test a full size prototype of the monitor.

Introduction

Manual fire monitors are widely
used in marine, offshore, industrial and many other corrosive environments to
stop unwanted fires. Fixed Monitors
spend most of their lives stationary. However when unwanted fires are perceived
they can frequently be the only practical way of applying foam or water to extinguish
fire. Although simple
in principle, fire monitors are sophisticated engineering pieces of work
designed to deliver a precise performance after long periods of inactive. Just
like another engineering challenge the design of a fire monitor can take many
arrangements depending on the exact hazard it is anticipated to protect and the
mechanism and technique of operation the designer uses to complete the final
layout. When designing
a fire monitor the designer must balance performance, operational life and ease
of use bearing in mind the cost. It is vital thus, that monitors are robust and
will have a long service life, even under harsh conditions.  Fixed fire monitors are often found anywhere
where there are considerable Class B fire risks whereas mobile or portable fire
monitors are frequently utilised to safeguard various risks by moving the
monitors around the site. Almost all industrial fire hazards are subject
to fire monitor protection, however some of the more popular applications may
include; refineries, chemical plants, helicopter landing pads, fuel
distribution depots and process plants etc… Although most fire monitors are
permanently secured to pipework and designed to extinguish particular
installations, in certain circumstances monitors are mounted on trailers that
can be moved from one fire hazard to another. But mobile monitors need a water
supply, and usually this is delivered by hoses or portable pumps. The jet
reaction force for a portable fire monitor can differ from few kg, for small
ground monitor to over a tonne for larger trailer-mounted units. Portable
monitors must be secured so that it cannot move once the full water flow and
pressure is applied. The design of pump pipes that make up a monitor is
critical as they serve several functions. They contain water or foam while permitting
the jet to be moved in both the vertical and horizontal planes, the pipes must have
good strength to resist pressure and reaction forces produced by the water and
they must be robust to accommodate the mounting of further items such as
levers, nozzles and hydraulic actuators etc.; all of this must be accomplished
with a design that is cost effective, has a tolerable pressure loss, will
resist corrosion and is not heavy. The design of a monitor is a negotiation
between cost, weight and performance.

Figure 1:
Typical fixed fire monitor installed at a Helideck. Source: Incendium Fire
Systems Solution

Novelty of the project

The design of fire monitors is not new to the designers and
manufactures of firefighting equipment. However with the fierce competition in
the current market where most of the fire monitors are sold to oil and gas
industries. In the past few years there has been a reduction in Global oil
demand growth and as result companies like Knowsley SK face a challenge of
designing a cost effective product with a reduced weight and good performance
due to industry challenges. As mentioned before that the designing a fire
monitor is a compromise of cost, weight and performance. It can be argued that
the majority of fire monitor designers archive one or two of the parameters
i.e. low cost can be archived without a good performance. This project aims to
design a monitor that is less cost to manufacture, light weight and good
functional performance. With the use of the available tools like CFD and FEA,
it will be possible to analyse the performance of the monitor at the design
stage where the wall thickness of the piping will also be optimised in order to
acquire the maximum weight reduction.

The number of components will also be reduced for cost
purposes as compared to the existing monitor and competitors design
arrangement. Many companies design fixed fire monitors specifically to be used
as a manual operated fixed monitor. This design aims at coming up with a
solution that is robust, the design should be able to accommodate the mounting
of various items such as gear boxes etc. this will allow the monitor to be used
as an oscillating monitor, gear driven monitor, at the same time it can be used
as a manual operated fixed monitor.    

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Preliminary Literature Survey

1.1.         
Fluid Dynamics

1.1.1.    
Basic theories

When analysing or modelling flow in
theory perspective, one of the key variables to be considered is the fluid
viscosity, viscosity considers the internal friction introduced by viscous
forces exerted amongst portions of a fluid in relation to the other in motion. The
forces fluctuate due to temperature and decreases for fluids with high
temperature. Because of viscous forces, fluid that interacts with a surface
will usually be likely to stick to it, creating a boundary layer with zero flow
velocity in relation to the surface resulting in flow losses (Massey, 1976). Dynamic and
Kinematic viscosity can be derived from the mass density;

Where;

Fluid flow in pipes can
be classed into two categories, thus laminar and turbulent flow regimes.

The turbulent flow
layers are mixed and flow irregular and chaotic resulting in a nearly uniform velocity
distribution as illustrated in Figure 2. On the other end the laminar flow can be recognised by
layers of local velocities that are parallel to the pipe axis. This paper will
mainly focus on turbulent flow as this is the usual flow being experienced by
fire monitors.

Figure 2: Comparison
of laminar and turbulent flow velocity profiles

Laminar and Turbulent flow
can be differentiated by analysing the ratio of viscous forces to momentum
forces, thus the dimensionless number known as the Reynolds number.

1.1.2.    
Reynolds Number

The change from laminar to
turbulent flow is governed by various factors such as the geometry, flow velocity, surface temperature,
surface roughness, and type
of fluid and many other factors. The flow regime depends chiefly on the
ratio of inertial forces to
viscous forces in
the fluid. Thus the ratio referred as the Reynolds
number and
is given for internal flow in a circular pipe by the following equation;

 

Where:

 

“With large Reynolds numbers, the inertial
forces, which are proportional to the fluid density and the square of the fluid
velocity, are large in relation to the viscous forces, and therefore the
viscous forces cannot stop the random and rapid fluctuations of the fluid” (Fitzpatrick, 2008). However
with small or
medium Reynolds numbers, the viscous
forces are sufficiently huge to overcome these deviations and to maintain the
fluid in line. That’s the flow is turbulent
in the first case and laminar in
the second (Fitzpatrick, 2008).

The critical Reynolds number
is when is at the period when the flow becomes turbulent ().
Critical Reynolds numbers varies with different geometries and flow conditions.
In this paper the only circular pipe geometry in looked at, for internal flow
in a circular pipe, the commonly accepted value of the critical Reynolds number
is 2300 (Fitzpatrick, 2008).

When modelling flow using
CFD, it is essential to initially determine the Reynolds number, this helps the
designer to select the correct modelling tools for the correct purposes.

1.1.3.    
The Entrance Region

When a fluid enters a circular pipe
at a uniform velocity, since it is a no-slip condition, the fluid particles in
the layer that interact with the surface of the pipe become stationery. This
layer also forces the fluid particles in the adjacent layers to reduce speed
gradually due to friction. To make up for this velocity decline, the velocity of the fluid at the
midsection of the pipe needs to increase to maintain the mass flow rate through
the pipe constant. Consequently, a velocity gradient initiate along the pipe. The
region of the flow in which the effects of the viscous shearing forces caused
by fluid viscosity are felt is known as the velocity boundary layer or just the
boundary layer. The theoretical boundary surface separate the flow in a pipe
into two regions: thus the boundary layer region, in which the viscous effects
and the velocity changes are substantial, and the irrotational (core) flow
region, where the frictional effects are negligible and the velocity stays fundamentally
constant in the radial direction.

Figure 3:
The development of the velocity boundary layer in a pipe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proposed Approach and Methodology

The Development of a Manually Operated Fire Monitor approach
began by writing a product design specification (PDS) as outlined in Appendix
1. The PDS will have to be approved by a manager at Knowsley SK before any
design work can commence to avoid an unwanted product/design solution. The
design process of the fire monitor will adopt the process shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Design
process. Source: Seyyed Khandani

1.    
Define the problem

·        
Establish the required technical improvements on
the existing fire monitor.

·        
Writing a project proposal.

·        
Creating a project design specification (PDS).

·        
Carryout a literature review.

2.    
Gather pertinent information

·        
Carryout literature review.

·        
Value analysis of the existing design.

·        
Testing of the existing design.

3.    
Generate multiple solutions

·        
Investigate the positives and negatives of
existing design.

·        
Carryout individual brain storming session.

·        
Generate 2 – 3 concept designs of the monitor.

4.    
Analyse, Evaluate and select a solution

·        
Carryout pressure flow analysis of the monitor
using computer fluid dynamics (CFD).

·        
Carryout structural analysis of the monitor
using finite element analysis (FEA).

·        
Evaluate the generated concepts and choose the
best solution that satisfies the PDS.

·        
Review of the chosen solution.

5.    
Test and implement the solution

·        
Sourcing the materials for prototype.

·        
Test plan creation.

·        
Build and test the prototype.

·        
Apply for external certification.

 

 

 

Evaluation and Testing Methods

The
developed monitor will be tested for pressure loss across the piping that makes
the monitor. The results will then be evaluated and be compared with the
results for the existing design. The Knowsley SK site has facilities that can
test the monitor at maximum flow of 1000lpm 5 bar inlet pressure. With this
restriction in mind, it is envisaged that further testing will be carried out
on a third party site or at a site where external certification will be
acquired. The jet throw testing might also be carryout out at Knowsley SK where
possible, however this is not a test requirement due to the fact that jet throw
is heavily influenced by a nozzle type even though it can be argued that the
piping design will also contribute to the distance travelled by the jet throw.
Figure 5 shows the existing monitor being tested for pressure loss at Knowsley
SK site. The similar test circuit will adopted for the newly developed monitor.

Figure 5:
Existing monitor tested at Knowsley SK site. Source: Knowsley SK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Economic, legal, social, ethical and environmental Considerations

 

Economic

Environmental

Ethical

Legal

Social

N/A

·        
Foam
concentrate.
Regardless of the fact that foam is highly effective when used to
extinguish fuel fires. All firefighting foams have a degree of environmental
impact. To reduce the risk of environmental impact, end users should select
more environmental friendly foams. Also end users should provide a method of
capture and control of any foam discharges during testing and commissioning
of the monitor. In a design perspective the environmental impact due to foam
can be reduced by designing the system correctly, using the appropriate seals
in order to prevent accidental discharges, leakages and carry out the
required system maintenance.

N/A

·        
Working instruction manual for the finished
product would be created for the monitor with do’s and don’ts in order to
avoid injuries or even deaths to the operators and other people e.g.
o  
Do not climb on the monitor
o  
Do not point the nozzle to the direction of
people during operation
o  
Operators should wear PPE when operating the
monitor
·        
Warning labels would be attached to the
monitors where appropriate.

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

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Appendix A       

Acronyms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B       

Gantt chart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C       

Estimation of Project Cost

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