O”Guinn and Allen (2003) posited that advertising can be considered as a variable created by emerging interest expressed as in the two main scientific areas: communication and marketing. With origins in terms of the academic and practices, advertising was discussed on the one hand, as a way of communication required by people involved in the present economic activities, meanwhile, and the solution to reduce problems in communication of many organizations which is the media, for example. Communication and advertising, in general, are components of contemporary and modern economic and social system. In the present, advertising has evolved into a more complex system of communication, essential for both organizations and the public. The ability and ways to send messages carefully prepared to its targets or audience gave over time to advertising a main role in marketing programs and projects of most organizations and institutions. In terms of different companies, from the multinational firms and local firms attaches results to increase importance of advertising in order to showcase the products and services to important markets. In working and functional marketing, consumers and buyers have learned to utilize the advertising information in their purchase decisions and strategies. The coherent and functional analysis of advertising and marketing can be done by showing a vision that incorporates two levels: first is the descriptive one, which actually considers issues related to the need to give meaning and also give difference of advertising to the other forms of marketing tools which is part of marketing strategy of communication, and the normative one considered as based from the traditions, that captures the conditions and realities that advertising must come up with so that marketing goals can be fulfilled. The need and necessity for strategic goal regarding advertising can be seen as an example of covering the scope of the normative aspect of the analysis, while the advertising forms can be aspects and fundamentals of the descriptive analysis. These concerns are considered as the outcome of analysis made by the interpenetration of the two levels.
Advertising seen as a process is based on the general scheme of the marketing communication process, with a number of specific features related to its content. Thus, from the above lines we could see that one of the characteristics is that advertising uses impersonal communication media (television, radio, press, etc.). This shows that the advertisement is created, sent and received by the target audience. This model shows that that there is a process that includes production and reception. This model also shows the attitude of interaction and negotiation with the consumers. (Allen and Seminik, 2003)
Source: Thomas O’Guinn, Chris Allen, Richard J.Semenik, Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion, 3e, South-Western College Publishing, 2003 p. 14.
As illustrated in Figure 2, the paradigm of this study presents the following input: the record of student population in Good Shepherd Cathedral School; the number of transferees from 2012 to 2017; the promotional tools such as promotional products, website, flyers, and seminars; the existing promotional strategies of Good Shepherd Cathedral School such as church promotions and online promotions through social media.
The figure also indicates the following four intended outputs of the study: to increase student t population; serves as reference of Good Shepherd Cathedral School, other schools, and future researchers; basis of effectiveness and evaluation for improvement of promotional strategies of Good Shepherd Cathedral School; and provides an understanding and awareness on the significant role of promotional strategies in Good Shepherd Cathedral School and other schools.
In order to realize the above outputs, the researchers, through interview and surveys, will try to identify and analyze the manner by which these promotional strategies were implemented in Good Shepherd Cathedral School. It is also in the same way by which effects of these promotional strategies to school, parents, and students.