Polygenic inheritance happens when
one characteristic is measured by two or more genes and often these genes are
larger in quantity but smaller in effect and exist in other organisms. Examples
of human polygenic
inheritance are height,
fingerprint pattern, skin color, eye color and weight. Polygenes are not different from other genes even though they
regulate the production of polypeptides and they separate and independently
assort, according to Mendelian principles
DNA fingerprinting is a technique that simultaneously detects lots of
minisatellites in the genome to make a pattern unique to an individual. Just
like your authentic fingerprint, your DNA fingerprint is something you are born
with, it is unique to you. The chemical structure of DNA in everyone is the
same, just the only difference is the base pairing in. The term
Dermatoglyphics comes from Harold Cummins in 1926, which is the scientific study of fingerprints, lines, mounts, and shapes of hands.
Each person fingerprints are unique, these are inherited from parents
and can be used to determine paternity and
maternity. A DNA pattern can be used in
a court case to determine whether one is innocent or not. In six steps, in a
laboratory, DNA fingerprinting can be done. Restriction enzymes are used to cut
the DNA at a precise area, according to the DNA sequence at that location then
the DNA pieces are then sorted to size through a process called electrophoresis.
The electrophoresis which has particles that are passed through seaweed agarose
is to determine the particle size then the DNA is then transferred to nylon by
which by sheet on the gel and letting it soak. Then the radioactive or colored
probes is added to a nylon sheet and a pattern is then produced. This pattern is DNA fingerprint. Although,
you cannot change ones fingerprints you can change the DNA structure.
A person’s fingerprints are based on the
patterns of skin ridges that are called dermatoglyphs on the pads of one’s
fingers. Dermatoglyphs progress before birth and stay the same throughout life.
The ridges begin to develop during the third month of fetal development by
which they are completely formed before the sixth month. The purpose of these
ridges is not entirely clear, but they likely increase sensitivity to touch
Dermatoglyphics is the information of naturally occurring ridges on
certain body parts, mainly the palms, fingers, soles and toes. These places of
the body are areas that where hair usually doesn’t not grow. Data can be
obtained from newborns that would help support a diagnosis of chromosomes of defects or abnormalities such as Down syndrome;
they tend to have a finger print pattern with mainly ulnar loops. There is less of a variation in
Dermatoglyphics patterns between people with Down syndrome than people without.
Down syndrome and Dermatoglyphics patterns could be used to define links with
congenital heart deficiencies in individuals with Down syndrome by examining
the left hand digit ridge count minus the right hand digit ridge count, and the
number of ridges on the fifth digit of the left hand, although, these could be
influenced by environmental factors.
Dermal ridges could be categorized into three major groups:
whorls, loops, and arches. The whorl pattern
is this is one of the three major group patterns which is seen in about 25 to 35%
of fingerprint patterns and there is four types of whorl patterns. One of these patterns has a two triradii and the
ridges form various patterns inside. Although, the frequency depends on the
particular chromosomal abnormality it is found in people Turner syndrome.
Turner syndrome is due to a chromosomal abnormality in which all or part of one of the X chromosomes is
missing or altered. The arch is
another type of fingerprinting; it is the simplest and least common pattern. Arches that are found in only about 5%of
fingerprint patterns. These ridges will run from one side to another other and
makes no backward turn. There are four types of arch patterns; ulnar arches,
radial arches, plain arches, and tented arches. Klinefelter’s syndrome seems to have excess of arches on digit 1,
more frequent ulnar loops on digit 2, overall fewer whorls, lower ridge counts
for loops and whorls as compared with controls, and significant reduction of
the total finger ridge count. The loop
being the last of the major group patterns does have a tiriradius and a core as well. Loop prints have a recurve on them that
forms a loop shape. About 60 to 70% of fingerprint patterns are encountered,
the loop patterns has only one delta.
There are disease that can actually alter your
fingerprints. Adermatoglyphia, which is a mutation in a gene and is
characterized by an absence of dermatoglyphs. In order for the dermatoglyphs to
form the SMARCAD1 gene needs to be present.