Q1. Why should an airline have an Emergency Response Plan (200 words)?

Answer 1 – Emergency Response Plan is set of actions to be taken when incident or accident occurs in the airline. The purpose of Emergency Response Plan is to respond in a timely and effective manner to accident or incident. ERP depends on the size of organization and type of operation they conduct. ERP can prevent a crisis, avoid confusion and chaos during an emergency event. It provides proper coordination of all activities, effective communication, and cooperation amongst employees by clearly stating their responsibilities. ERP reflects preparedness of airline for an emergency. It also provides safe continuation of airline operations at the time of crisis management. It assists investigation process by providing records and documentation. ERP supports media response process. If it is prepared in advance, it might prevent injuries and casualties. Emergency Response Plan includes a humanitarian response with help of special assistance team. It also helps in proper coordination with external agencies during a crisis.

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Q2. Choose one aircraft incident or accident and provide a high-level summary of what occurred (half page)

Answer 2 – The Japan Airlines flight 123 on August 12, 1985, the aircraft (B747-SR-46) took off from Tokyo International Airport at 6:12 pm after 12 minutes from departure, the aircraft reached its cruising altitude over Sagami Bay, where the rear pressure bulkhead failed which caused an explosive decompression at rear fuselage, as a result, it separated vertical stabilizer from aircraft and aircraft became more uncontrollable and finally crashed. US forces were first to reach the site for assistance, but they were sent back by the Japanese government. JSDF spotted the wreckage at night and was unable to land on the site because of poor visibility and difficult terrain, so JSDF decided to land in the nearby village and to continue the operation the following morning. The bodies then found had injuries which indicated that there were some passengers who survived the crash but died from shock and exposure while awaiting their rescue. After the accident got published there was a lot of aggressiveness among relatives of passengers who died and the local military commander about the government of Japan refusal to accept American assistance, a lot of lives could have been saved. Another hidden fact, Boeing was sued by 54 families and accountability for the accident was split 60-40 between Boeing and JAL. Although the aircraft flight 123 had a history of tail strike, it was repaired by Boeing. The decision was made by JAL to make the repair as cost-efficient as possible for example one row of rivets were used instead of two rows and also the B747 was modified by putting seats closer to accommodate more people on the plane to maximize potential passenger load for profit and being another reason for the loss of 520 lives.

Q3. Executive Overview.

Answer 3 – The function of ICAO is to facilitate safe and secure operations globally. Accident records from the year 2012 to 2016 in safely report shows a downward trend in a number of accidents and fatalities of scheduled commercial flight category. The highest number of accidents being 98 in the year 2012 and 911 fatalities in 2014. Unlawful interference was the main cause all the state members were advised to adopt following resolution ”the convention on the suppression of unlawful act relating to international civil aviation” and ”the convention on suppression of unlawful seizure Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership has been established by ICAO to provide assistance to all its state members on priority basis. This priority is determined by collecting data from Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme, integrated Safety Analysis and Reporting system and Worldwide Governance Indicators. The method of prioritizing state depends on safety margin which may be above or below the forget value and state with negative safety margin will be identified in the list of top states requiring assistance.  The purpose of ASIAP is to provide communication channel amongst its states. To measure effective implementation rate, protocol questions were established by ICAO which are divided into eight audit areas, they are Aerodromes, Air navigation services, Accident investigation, Airworthiness, Operations, Licensing, Organization and Legislation, from which Airworthiness constitute of the highest percentage of effective implementation i.e.  76.5%. Safety recommendations can be made by state conducting investigation and ICAO will respond within 90 days after receiving Safety Recommendations. ICAO received the maximum number of SR i.e. 31in the year 2013 and lowest being five in 2014. The accident rate is the primary indicator of safety with highest being 3.1 accidents per million departure in 2012. The accident data for scheduled commercial air transport is further categorized according to Regional Accident Statistics Regions for aviation safety analyst, The 5 RASG region are AFI, APAC, EUR, MID, and PA. Highest fatalities in MID RASG region, and highest accident rate in EUR. The purpose of Global Safety Information Exchange is to exchange information in order to reduce risks affecting aviation safety. GSIE Harmonized Accident rate was highest in 2014 with highest injuries to person and damage to aircraft. For seamless integration of accident data, ICAO, International Air Transport Association have classified accident based on categories which are Controlled Flight To Terrain, Ground Safety, Loss Of Control in Flight, Injuries to and/or Incapacitation of Persons, Operational Damage, Other, Runway Safety and Unknown with highest accidents being 41 categorized in runway safety. Based on harmonized regional analyses, of RASG region, the maximum number of accidents i.e. 44 in PA, and highest accident rate being 7.37 in MID. Safety report also provides detailed information on scheduled commercial air transport accidents that occurred in 2016. These accidents were categorized in three categories, which were runway safety related, loss of control in flight & CFIT & all 3 categories accounted for 61.3% of a total number of accidents, 50% of fatal accidents & 37.4% of fatalities. These 3 categories serve as the backbone for safety analysis by ICAO. Most of the accidents were in the PA region & occurs because of Runway safety, whereas highest percent of fatal accidents were same for the MID, EUR & APAC region & occurred mostly because of loss of control in flight. The highest percentage of fatalities reported in MID region and also were because of LOC.

Q4. What is the trend of aircraft accidents and does this have an impact on organizational Emergency Preparedness? (100 words)

Answer 4 – There is decreasing trend in a number of accidents, but the accidents still continue to happen. Despite advancement in technologies and implementation of various safety procedures which results in fatalities. This affects the organization’s emergency preparedness. When the organization operates successfully without any accident or incident for a long period of time, there are changes that the organization may become “complacent” which being the biggest threat to aviation. The organization develops mindset resulting in less effort and resources being devoted to safety consideration since nothing has gone wrong. As a result of which investment in safety-related measures decreases and more attention and capital are devoted to increasing productivity, making the whole operation unsafe. This continues till some serious incident or fatal accident occurs and the organization has no emergency preparedness plan to counteract the situation thus leading heavy losses or even throwing the organization out of business.

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