REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

There are many issues concerning students in University of
Cebu and Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue in the usage of Social Media.On one hand, there
may be benefits for students  who  use Social Media properly and appropriately.
Other research suggests that there are clear risks involved when students
become too consumed with the Internet and social networking websites. This
research review is aimed at finding the effects of social media on students’ academic
performance.Therefore, the literature review discusses the relevant research
that is useful to the objectives of this research project.

Social media employs mobile and web based
technology to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and
community share, co-create, discuss and modifies user-generated content (Kietzmannn,
2012). Social media can increase student learning through student interactions,
challenges arise when social media are incorporated into an academic course. It is stated that the social activity sharing  tools 
such  as  Facebook and Twitter used by especially the
youngsters more in-tensely have created an internal obstacle in fulfilling
their responsibilities by negatively affecting the social, familial relations
and health (Esen, 2010).

A study cited by Boyd & Ellison
(2007) define social  network sites
as  web-based services that  allow individuals to construct profiles,
display user connections, and search and traverse within that list of
connections. A social media is an online service or platforms that focus on
facilitating the building of social network among people who share interest,
activities and background on real life connections. It is a website that allows
users to share information within a selected group.

Social Networking Sites (SNS) have
been popular since the year 2002 and have attracted and fascinated tens of
millions of Internet users (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). The idea behind most of
this phenomenon, as with many websites, is to help people feel socially
connected and part of a community, even though they may be sitting home alone
at their computer (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008). Participants may connect with
other people they know through school, work, or an organization, or they may
meet complete strangers from all over the world (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008).
They do this by searching for people and adding them as “friends” so that they
may share information with them and other networks that those people may  be 
a  part of (Boyd 
Ellison,  2007).  Being 
“friends” in the  SNS world simply
means that two profiles have been linked together (Tufekci, 2008). This, in
turn, expands a person’s network greatly, so that they may meet and share
information with even more members (Coyle & Vaughn, 2008).

Though  many 
arguments  can  be 
made  about  the 
possible  risks  of 
adolescent  social networking, it
is important to point out the benefits of these websites as well. Many schools
have  started  to 
use  these  sites 
to promote  education,  keep 
students  up  to 
date  with assignments, and offer
help to those in need (Boyd, 2007). In general, the Internet and social
networking sites can be a positive influence on adolescents. Social networking
sites 25  provide an outlet for teens to
express themselves in their own unique ways (Boyd, 2007). In addition, they
serve both as a meeting place for teens to interact with other like-minded
people and as showplaces for a teen’s artistic and musical abilities (Boyd,
2007).

High school students use these sites
as tools to obtain information and resources for graduation preparation and
future planning. For example, students applying for college visit profiles of
that college’s students to view pictures and read blogs of past students to
determine whether the college would be a good fit (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).

It has been observed in recent times that students have
unlimited access to the internet as well as the social media. Students connect
with computer to send and receive information’s anywhere on the globe. The manufacturing
and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the
situation, as students no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they  and 
receive  messages.  Some 
school  are  so 
equipped  that  there 
is  internet connection made  available within the school premises as well
as in the library. Online Wikipedia and 
blogs are the main resource centers for students as attention have been
shifted  from  making 
research  in  the 
library  to  overall 
dependence  on  theses 
social platforms. It is a common thing to see a student reading in the
library and putting the books aside on hearing the sound of a ping on the
phone.

Boyd & Ellison (2007) pointed out
that the U.S. Congress has proposed legislation to ban youth from accessing
social networking websites in schools and libraries. When the highly developed
nations take stands over the use of social networking websites and cannot allow
these social networking websites for countrymen, youth, students and working
people, then the need is felt to see into that either social networking
websites adversely effects students  or
not.

Social media are also emerging as online year book for
private and public use. It allows anyone from the general public to register
and connect to others. It allows participant the opportunity for just in time
learning and engagement and prescribed curriculum. Jerkins (2006)
described  it as participatory culture.
It creates space for  learners  which James (2004) suggest affinity space and
dispersion of expertise and relatedness for learning.

Though there have been many social, economic, and
environmental factors that have added to the pressure of university students in
the past ten years, the drop-out rate for students is still  a 
major  national  problem 
(Bowen, 2008).  Current  statistics 
show that  university students in
Nigeria are under increased pressure due to higher academic standards in other
countries,  and  it 
has  become  more 
important  than  ever 
for  educators  to 
encourage graduation and further education (Bowen, 2008). However, with
more and more students being preoccupied with social media networks and
technological social lives, how will this affect their studies? It is estimated
that even those students who do graduate high school, one out of three does not
have possess the knowledge and skills that would lead him or her to the next
level, such as college or an advanced trade school (Bowen, 2008)

The top academic areas that many school professionals are concerned
about are English (ELA) and advanced literacy (Williams, 2008). The current
generations of teens live in a fast-paced technological world with many
different types of communication happening all at the same time. For example,
he or she may be on the computer on a SNS, while also talking on the phone,
sending instant messages to a friend, and emailing someone else all at the same
time (Williams, 2008). While there may be some advantages to this, such as the
teen learning how to type faster and multi-task many things at once, there may
also be a breakdown in much of that communication (Williams, 2008). 

The 
social  media  engages 
students  and  have 
to  be  examined 
as  entrepreneurs  of understanding. The medium of internet is
marketing with increase in its programs. The interactive character of online
conditions has extended with social networking. Hooking up through social
networking began as being a niche activity, though time it’s a phenomenon. The
web sites are employed in many ways like developing metropolitan areas,
speaking, blogging etc. Additionally different institutions even nowadays are
developing groups on several Websites (Saba Mehmood 2013). 

According to
Khan U (2009), social media users often time experience poor performance
academically. Similarly, Englander, Terregrossa & Wang (2010) posit that
social media is negatively associated with academic performance of student and
is a lot more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction consequently
gave rise in internet usage within the last couple of decades. Nalwa &
Anand (2003).recommended that addicted users prefer using internet setting back
their personal and professional responsibilities which ultimately leads to poor
academic performance. In the same vein, Karpinski (2009) pointed out that
social media users devoted lesser time to their studies in comparison to
nonusers did and subsequently had lower GPAs. Karpinski & Duberstein (2009).Also
mentioned that among various  unique
distractions  of  every 
single generation,  Social  media 
remains  a major distraction of
current generation.

One of the
reason that the students use Social Media according Peter and Schouten(2006)
stated that social  media networks
and  Internet usage,  social networking sites like Facebook and
MySpace have become so popular that many university students will get an
account even if they do not want. This shows that joining a SNS signifies more
than just going on a website; it is way of 
“fitting  in”  with peers, 
just like  many other  types 
of  groups  in 
high  school  (Peter, Schouten, & Valkenburg, 2006). In
fact, SNS may be predictors of self-esteem and well-being  in 
students,  and  they 
have  become  a 
fundamental  role  in 
student’s  life  (Peter, Schouten, & Valkenburg, 2006). A
student stated in a research study by Dr. Danah Boyd at Berkeley University:
“If you’re not on MySpace, you don’t exist” (Boyd, 2007).

Social media
networks, as well as other new forms of communication technology, are also a
concern to many school professionals because of the level of distraction they
create within the school (Greenfield & Subrahmanyam, 2008). Even though
many schools have created many strict rules that forbid the use of handheld
technology during school activities or that block certain social networking
websites, many students are still able to connect during lecture    hours 
as they  please  (Greenfield 
Subrahmanyam,  2008). 
This  has caused distractions  during 
instruction  time  and 
has  had  a 
negative  impact  on 
the  learning environment. 

On the
internet, students engage in a variety of activities some of which may be
potentially addictive.Kuss and Griffiths (2011). The mass appeal of social
media on the internet could be a cause for concern, particularly when attending
to the gradually increasing amount of time students spend online.
Undergraduates spend more time on Facebook, Twitter and other social media
through smartphones that are now in abundance among these youths. Many student
cannot go for two-three hours without checking and updating their profiles on
these social networks even at the detriment of other activities such as
educational and career pursuit. (Morahan- Martin and Schumacher, 2000) explain
social media addiction as the excessive use of the internet and the failure to
control this usage which seriously harms a person’s life.

Many
concerned  parents have  expressed grave  concern that 
they could hardly  get the
attention of  their children  and wards, 
as they  seem  to have 
been carried away by  the
fascinating world of social networks. Some youths are such social freaks that
they have now carved out for themselves a world of fantasy and illusion for
detached from reality. Bello (2012) of the Sunday Observer observes that if the
dangerous trend of social media network “obsession” if left unchecked could
further affect an already collapsing education system in Nigeria. The reason
students are performing poorly in school these days might not be farfetched.
While poor quality of lecturers can quickly take the blame, one might think
harder if the phrase “Facebook frenzy” has not been heard of. It is a common
sight to see a  youth chatting in
sensitive and highly organized  places
like church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as
they are walking along the high way, they keep 
chatting. Attention  has been
shifted  from visible  to invisible 
friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in
the process.

          In
Olubiyi (2012), the author observed that the bone of contention of the social
media is the obsessive attitude of Nigerian youths towards its use. He pointed
out that students waste their time through idle chats and other immoral acts.
Students are so engrossed in the social media networks  that they 
are almost  24 hours  online. Even in classrooms and  lecture theatres, it  has been 
observed that some  students are
always  busy pinging, 2going or
Facebooking, while lectures are on. The result is that quality time that ought
to be spent on academic research and other productive networking is lost.

The most
important reason for this is that social media is put on the second plan for a
long time, in other words, overuse of the responsibilities. While constant
social media thinking, social media anxiety and unhappiness, non-self-control
behaviors are defined as social media cognitive disorders; it is possible to
define behavioral disorders such as not being able to control the duration of
social media usage, refusing to socialize when experiencing a problem, and
failing to fulfill responsibilities in social, academic, familial and
professional relations (Keser- Özcan and Buzlu, 2007).

According to
Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010) social network websites grab attention of the
students and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions
including useless chatting.  Based on the
above statement we can say that  social
networking sites may badly affect the academic life and learning experiences of
the student. Trusov, Bucklin, and Pauwels (2009) noted that the Internet is no
doubt evolution of technology but specifically social networks are extremely
unsafe for teenagers, social networks become hugely common and well-known in
past few years

          Social
media can also be a challenging instructional strategy to incorporate because
it attempts to balance the authority of the educator with the active
participation of the students. Collaboration through social media supports more
of a constructivist approach to learning, where students and educators can work
together to co-create understanding of a particular topic, rather than an
approach that emphasizes individual contributions (Stevens, 2009). As a result,
students and educators become equalparticipants in the knowledge sharing
process. Though this seems beneficial for creating and disseminating knowledge,
socialmedia can also become a privacy concern (i.e. cyber-plagiarism) as well
as an outlet for abuse and cyber-bullying (Chen & Bryer,2012; Frye et al.,
2010; Jackson, 2011; Smailes & Gannon-Leary, 2011). This suggests that
establishing standards for socialmedia use should include behavior and attitude
guidelines similar to those enforced in the classroom.

The assumption that students are
familiar with and agreeable to using certain types of social media can cause
educators to inadvertently fail to provide the resources or encouragement
necessary to support student usage and learning (Cole, 2009; Väljataga &
Fiedler, 2009). Arnold and Paulus (2010) found that even when social media is
used for aneducational purpose, students incorporate the technology into their
lives in a way that may differ from the intentions of the courseinstructor. For
example, off-topic or non-academic discussions occur on social media because of
its primary design as a socialnetworking tool (Lin et al., 2013). Further, as a
student’s age increases, the frequency of off-topic discussions also increases
(Linet al., 2013). This indicates that while social media may encourage broader
discussions of course content, older students mayspend more time than younger
students engaging in unrelated discussions. Social media can also negatively
affect student GPA aswell as the amount of time students spend preparing for
class (Annetta et al., 2009). One explanation for this impactis that social
media provides too much stimulation and therefore can distract students from
completing their coursework (Hurt etal., 2012; Patera et al., 2008). Another
reason for this may be that students who spend more time on social media may
have difficulty balancing their online activities and their academic
preparation.

         

In a research conducted by Kuppuswamy
and Shankar (2010) explore the effects of social networking websites and its
impact on academic life and learning experiences of students.  As Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010)
explained  that the social networks  grabs the 
total attention  and concentration
of the students and diverts it towards non educational, unethical and
inappropriate actions such as useless chatting, time killing by random
searching and not doing their jobs. Students and teenagers mostly use social
networks for time killing and sake of 
enjoyment but  it has been  analyzed that 
internet use for  education
purpose and any  appropriate task
including  online tutorials, online  lectures and education  material downloading  is very 
good but use  of internet for  only social 
network is  very useless perhaps
dangerous.