“The home
is the wellspring of personhood. It is where our identity takes root and
blossoms, whereas children, we imagine, play, and question, and as adolescents,
we retreat and try. As we grow older, we hope to settle into a place to raise a
family or pursue work. When we try to understand ourselves, we often begin by
considering the kind of home in which we were raised” (Desmond 2016, 293).  Evictions! The root of
poverty?  Matthew Desmond’s novel “Evicted: Poverty and Profit in America
City, portrays the lives of tenants, landlords, and house marketing on the
poorest neighborhoods of Milwaukee. Desmond gives the reader overwhelming
evidence and revealing testimony illustrating the major impact of inadequate
housing on individuals, local, and national level. Desmond’s analysis and
observation of his case study enables him to portray the reality of poverty,
and to persuade the readers that evictions are a major consequence, and primary
contributors in the unending cycle of poverty. Desmond build his argument using
two Aristotelian rhetorical appeals, ethos, logos and inductive reasoning to
illustrates the importance of ending the cycle of poverty.According
to Alan G. Gross and Arthur E. Walzer, ethos is a type of ethical appeal that
establish the speaker’s credibility or character and expertise as persuasive
techniques (2000;134). In order to gain and reinforce his experience or
expertise Matthew Desmond employs ethos throughout, Evicted. Also, he used
ethos to prove his knowledge on the subject, and to prove his reliability as a
source, to induce readers to have similar conclusions about his argument. In
fact, in attempt to construct credibility among his audience he introduces the
“Author’s Note.” Although, the credibility of an author is only the perception
of the viewer and rhetor’s capacity to successfully persuade his audience. The
Author’s Note acts as a disclaimer, basically introducing conditional terms,
that Desmond considers necessary for the reader to understand his field of
work. For instance, “This is a work of nonfiction” (Desmond 2016; xi). This
quote immediately set a specific focus and to why people should read Evicted.
It also acts as a disclaimer, that stablish the reader’s interpretation by
outlining necessary evidence to successfully grip Desmond’s argument(s). The Author’s Note achieves a
function that is extremely important to author – reader relationship when
building trust and credibility among these two individuals. Desmond develops
his relationship when he said, “… all the events that occurred within that time
period were witnessed first-hand” (20016; xi). 
Desmond, as the only author of evicted, it was extremely important to
show the reader that he lived these experiences himself and didn’t just gather
information from other sources. The way Desmond connect himself with the people
in these neighborhoods made the reader realize that his integrity as a
trustworthy advocated or source for covering the issue on the minority groups
and the continues cycle of poverty is a nonstop problem. Fundamentally,
Desmond, reinforced his credibility by putting himself in unbearable
situations. In Addition, the Author’s Note further extend Desmond
credibility by illustrating his position and commitment to maintain
transparency and objectivity among his work, making the author’s note act as a
disclaimer function. In order to get the reader to believe his work, Desmond is
very transparent with the sources and stories he gather during his research. “…All
quotations were captured by a digital recorder or copied from official
documents. The names of tenants, their children, and their relatives, as well
as landlords and their workers have been changed to protect their privacy”
(2016; xi). By reveling the specific measurements he used allowed Desmond
established a high level of transparency among his audience. Also, his
measurements and sources allowed him to prevent misinterpretations of his work.
The level of transparency that he creates among him and the audience, allowed
him to be a voice of honesty and revealer of truth. In the quote, Desmond
illustrates why he wrote Evicted in
first person, he does it to enforce that he had no emotional attachment in the
issue discussed, that could lead his research and conclusion as bias. Desmond’s
use of footnotes provided significant trustworthiness for his audience because
it yields a real- time- fact- checker throughout the book. For instance, if the
reader feels skeptical about a claim, they can instantly be redirect to the
original source. As a result, readers doubting of such claim can easily access
the footnotes for a further insight on the author’s argument. According, to Sonja
K. Foss, “those that use persuasive writing from other sources but does not
create or include, the testimony of witness and documents such as contracts and
letters, tend to fail convince the reader to fully trust the author’s work” (2008;26).
Although including footnotes is not a neoclassical rhetorical appeal, it allows
the author to create a visual confirmation of facts. Desmond include footnotes
because one of the essential functions that footnotes had in Evicted was to give the reader the
validation of external proof. This helped Desmond to strengthen his argument. Evicted is an external evidence
that can appeal to the audience’s rationality and reinforce the importance of
eviction and housing inequality as a major factor of poverty in the United
States. Also, “Evicted” could be an
extended version of logos, a rhetorical appeal which supports and helps develop
the author’s argumentation and the evaluation of evidence that underlines and
upholds the author’s thesis. According to Alan G.
Gross and Arthur E. Walzer, “logos is a logical appeal, that operates under the
assumption that the audience is rational, and display the arguments in such a
way that will bring the readers to the desire conclusion” (2000;135).
Therefore, Evited is organized in a
specific way, to give the reader(s) the concepts needed it to fully understand
the argument presented. Also, by rationalizing his main argument in a logical,
sound, and comprehensible way. Desmond then shows how one content builds on
another, displaying how evictions contribute to the endless cyclical process of
poverty. Despite the improvements in todays sociological advancements, Evicted is able to portray the
irrationality which still remains in our current system and why it is flawed.Inductive Reasoning, is used primarily by Desmond to provide
specific examples to draw and facilitate a general conclusion among the
readers. To illustrate heartbreaking and unremarkable issues among poor
families, Desmond does a wonderful job following each individual and their
unique stories. He gives the readers unforgettable stories, but one that he  used to exemplify the struggle of a poor
family and how “poor families were often compelled to accept substandard
housing in the harried aftermath of evictions … and were also 25 percent more
likely to experience long-term housing problem than other low-income renters”
(Desmond 2016;69), was when Doreen Hinkstons’ suddenly got evicted and ending
on one of Sherrena’s low-quality complex. 
As a Sociologies Desmond uses the micro-level to represent one of the
major problem in the United States. Also, it doesn’t allow the reader to oppose
the giving argument and conclusion. Micro-Level is commonly use in sociology,
the sociologist engages with individuals or families to solve the problems.
Desmond didn’t solve the problem, yet he gave some reasonable proposals on how
the problems should be addressed. Eviction(s)! the cause(s) of poverty? The stories of these
people spoke for themselves. Poverty is a hard topic, it makes people feel
uneasy because it made them realize about how the system of America, which
supposed to be (equal for all) is full of flaws, that aren’t being solve.  Inequality is growing among the minority
groups,

 

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