The Effects of Certain Dyes on a White Flower       Botany              Experimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator Teacher      Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 2Purpose and Hypothesis Page 3Review of Literature Page 4Materials and Procedure Page 7Results Page 9Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11Bibliography Page 13AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank a few people. One person I would like to thank is my mom for helping me with the dyes and printing out all of the pictures for me. I would also like to thank my dad for helping me buy the materials needed to do the experiment. Lastly, I would like to thank, my friend, Arion who helped me create the idea of this experiment.              Purpose and Hypothesis The purpose of my experiment is to find out which water solution has the strongest dyed effect on a white chrysanthemum.This experiment will help many florists and other people find the cheapest dye with the best effect.  My hypothesis is that out of all of the dyed flowers, the flower dyed with hair dye will have the strongest dyed color compared to all of the other dyes. This is because according to, www.genuiskitchen.com, it states “food coloring is a very common way to dye white flowers at home, and works very well”(Genuiskitchen.com. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from http://www.genuiskitchen.com/). Hair dye is used for stronger dyeing purposes so if food coloring dyes white flowers well then hair dye should have a much stronger and, better effect. During the experiment my hypothesis was proven incorrect. This is because I hypothesized that the hair dye would dye the white chrysanthemum the most but unfortunately it only dyed the tip of one petal on that flower. In fact the food coloring was the only dye that actually dyed the flowers. The hair dye and clothing dye actually killed the flowers. While the deet juice didn’t affect the flower at all. The experiment did give me another hypothesis though. It is that, if you put flowers in different water solutions, that each have different amounts of chemicals, the flower that is being watered with the water solution that has the most chemicals will die the fastest (sooner than the rest).                    Review of Literature This experiment was chosen because everybody knows about dying flowers with food coloring. Nobody has ever dyed flowers with hair dye or clothing dye though. This experiment turned a classic fun kids experiment into a scientific experiment that could help people. There were five different dyes that the chrysanthemums were placed in. They were Food Coloring, Hair Dye, Beet Juice and Clothing Dye. In the experiment one flower is placed in plain water to so that it is easier to compare the results of all the dyes. The 5 different dyes because of many reasons. The food coloring was used because according to flowers.com, “food coloring is the best way to dye flowers at home…” (Send Flowers Online with Flower Delivery by 1-800-Flowers.com, the World’s Favorite Florist! (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2017, from  https://www.1800flowers.com/?utm_medium=direct&utm_source=flowerscom). The Hair dye was used because, according to an article be Karina Bray, it states “To permanently colour the hair, hair dyes use a combination of the chemicals ammonia and hydrogen peroxide”(Bray, K. (2015, January 08). Chemicals in hair dye – hair care and removal. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from https://www.choice.com.au /health-and-body/beauty-and-personal-care /hair-care-and -removal/articles/chemicals-in-hair-dye). These are two very strong chemicals and there are still more. Ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are what make the hair dye work so well. That means that if food coloring, which doesn’t have those chemicals, dyes white flowers really well than hair dye should dye the flowers even better. Clothing dye was used because, warddrobeadvice.com, states “Many of the dyes used today come from chemicals that are taken from petroleum or from coal. These chemicals can be used to synthesize more natural plant-based dyes that were once used” (What are Clothing Fabric Dyes Made Of? (2009, April 13). Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://wardrobeadvice.com/ what-are-clothing-fabric -dyes-made-of/). This shows that clothing dye is made with very harsh chemicals that are meant to permanently dye clothes. It is way easier to permanently dye flowers so the clothing dye should have a really strong affect. One of the flowers were dyed with beet juice. This was because of a few reasons. One was because, according to  zady.com, which states “The most commonly used dyes in ancient times were found near their source” (Bray, K. (2015, January 08). Chemicals in hair dye – hair care and removal. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from https://www .choice.com.a u/health-and-body /beauty-andpersonal-care/hair-care -and-removal /articles/chemicals-in-hair-dye). Beet Juice is “straight from the source”. This shows that people use to use natural dyes to dye clothes. If beet juice can dye clothes it should be able to dye a white Chrysanthemums fairly well. Also all of the dyes were the color red. This color was chosen because according to a website it states “Red and blue food coloring work the best when dyeing” (Guenthe, L. (n.d.). KidZone Science Colored Flowers. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from  http://www.kidzone .ws/science/carnations.htm). This shows that if you want the strongest and most effective color from the flowers that one of those colors should be used. Also typically the darker a artificial color is the more powerful of a color it produces. Lastly, red is a more popular color for flowers. It states this in, www.proflowers.com, a website and article created by professional florist, “Red or Cherr colored flowers are some of the most commonly bought flowers in America” (P. (2014, May 16). Most Commonly Bought Flowers. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.proflowers.com/blog/most-commonly-bought-flowers) This demonstrates how the red color of all the dyes will be a larger help and be much more efficent.                                               Materials and Procedure There were quite a few materials that were used. One of the main materials were flowers. To do the experiment you needed 5 white flowers. I used chrysanthemums but and white flower should work. You also need 5 vases of the same size. You need 30 ml of 5 different dyes.. They are, clothing dye, hair dye, artificial food coloring and beet juice. All of the dyes have to be the color red or blue. This is because, according to www.plant-science.com it states “when dying flowers at home red and blue dyes will give you the best effect” (Colour changing flowers. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.planet-science.com/categories/experiments/me ssy/2010/09/colour-changing-flowers.aspx). Next you need 237 ml of water per vase. In total you need 1183 ml of water. You will also want a safe place with plenty of sunlight to put the chrysanthemums in. Also you’ll have to have scissors to cut the flowers. To make sure that you know which dye is which it is necessary that you have labels. Lastly, you need any materials that will help you take notes and pictures. The procedure was rather simple. First, you need to fill each vase with 237 ml of lukewarm water. This is because according to Chelsey Carter, who works at the Chicago Flower Company, “lukewarm water is best when dying flowers because it helps the flowers absorb the water better” (Carter, C. (2017, October 17). Professional Florist Interview Personal interview). Next, you want to place 30 ml of food coloring in one of the vases. Then 30 ml of hair dye in one vase and same with the clothing dye and beet juice. One of the vases will have plain water, this is so you can compare the results. Next, you will put the labels on each of the correct vases. Now you should cut each stem to the correct length, this will differ depending on how large your vases are. You should cut the flowers at a 45° angle. This is because, as reported by www.dreamalittlebigger.com it states “cutting the flower at a 45° angle will allow the flower to more easily absorb the water” (Murray, A., AlicePretty, C. S., Lauren @ The Thinking Closet says, Says, A. M., Says, N., Says, S., . . . Says, J. (2014, October 20). Dyeing Flowers with Food Coloring Tutorial. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.dreamali ttlebigger.com/ post/ dyeing-flowers-with-food-coloring-tutorial.html). Now you will place each flower in one vase. Now you have to wait 24 hours. You should be taking notes and pictures throughout the whole entire experiment.                                   Results My experiment was about finding which artificial dyes dyes each flower the most. I wanted to find out how “stronger or weaker” dyes affected how much a white flower got colored. I hypothesised that hair dye would have the strongest effect on the flower. The experiment proved me incorrect though. The chrysanthemum that was placed in food coloring came out with the most change in color. Over the course of the experiment the color of the flower became a stronger and stronger red. Slowly, one by one each petal turned a red color. The chrysanthemum that was placed in food coloring also stayed “fresh and didn’t die as fast.  Beet Juice didn’t dye the flower at all. There was no variation in color throughout the whole entire experiment. The chrysanthemum had no change too. From beginning to end the flower looked brand new. None of its petals fell off. None of them even turned browned. The flower never showed a sign of dying.  The Clothing Dye didn’t do very well either. It only slightly dyed the end of two petals a burgundy color. Other than the the color of the chrysanthemum stayed almost equivalent to its natural color. The Clothing Dye did kill the flower more though. At the end of the experiment I compared the results of all the flowers to the flower that had no dye in its water. The flower that was placed in the Clothing Dye had more brown or shriveled flowers than the flower that had nothing in its water. The flower that was placed in Hair Dye didn’t that much of a difference either. It only had one flower petal that was dyed a slight red. The rest of the flower was still the same as at the beginning, white. It did die the fastest though. It had the most dead petals at the end. It also looked the worse. This is what the range was for the color… (white)-chs= 0%-20% I’ll – I’l= 25%-35% i’ll= 40%-100%  Conclusion, Reflection, Application My Science Fair experiment is all about how different artificial dyes affect how well a whiter flower will get dyed. I essentially trying to find out how strong the redness(color) was depending on which water solution is was put in. Before the experiment I hypothesised that the flower that was placed in Hair Dye would have the strongest change in the color of red. During the experiment I found that my hypothesis was incorrect. In fact the food coloring water solution was the one that colored the flower the most. The Hair Dye and Clothing Dye actually killed the flowers. The Beet Juice had no effect on the chrysanthemum. At the end of the experiment I did discover something else though. I identified a new hypothesis. It was, if you put flowers in different water solutions, that each have different amounts of chemicals, the flower that is being watered with the water solution that has the most chemicals will die sooner than the rest. I think this because the only two flowers that showed signs of dying were the chrysanthemums placed in the Hair Dye and Clothing Dye. Both Clothing and Hair Dye have a lot more chemicals in them than the Food Coloring and the Beet Juice. In the end, I concluded that food coloring is still the best way for people to dye flowers. I believe that my project was genuinely fair. During the entire experiment all of the chrysanthemums got the same amount of sunlight. They all stayed in the same room, so there was no temperature difference. Also, they were the same flowers, chrysanthemums, and they got placed in the same amount of liquid. There was only one independent variable, it was the height of each chrysanthemum. If the height was off by anything it was only of by one or two centimeters. Other than that the only thing I would change in my experiment would be adding Florist Dye. Florist Dye is what professional florists use. That means that if I placed one of the chrysanthemums into a water solution of,  237 ml of water and 30 ml of Florist Dye, then it should dye the flower no matter what. In the end, I think my experiment went really well. I think that there were no needed changes only changes that could help improve the procedure a little bit. The experiment can be used in many ways. It can help many people too. This experiment can help florists a lot. It shows us that food coloring is the best option when dyeing flowers. Food Coloring is the cheapest option and works almost as well as the Florists Dye that I’ve seen flowers get dyed with. It can also help florists recognize the cheapest and most efficient option. Food Coloring makes the most sense because as Linda Miller stated, “we only really dye flowers around certain holidays. Mainly around Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day or St. Patrick’s Day” (Miller, L. (2017, October 20). Bunches Flower Shop Interview Personal interview). This proves that they should be using food coloring, since they only dye flowers three times a year using Florist Dye would be a waist. This experiment can also help any person who either wants to do something fun, dye flowers, or just wants a cheap way to get pretty colored flowers. The procedure helps everyday people see that for a cheap and fun way to dye flowers you should just use Food Coloring. All and all this experiment can and will help many people.                                                                           Reference ListBray, K. (2015, January 08). Chemicals in hair dye – hair care and removal. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from https://www.choice.com.au/health-and-body/beauty-and-personal-care/hair-care-and-removal/articles/chemicals-in-hair-dyeCarter, C. (2017, October 17). Professional Florist Interview Personal interview.Colour changing flowers. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.planet-science.com/categories/experiments/messy/2010/09/colour-changing-flowers.aspx. Genuiskitchen.com. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from http://www.genuiskitchen.com/Guenthe, L. (n.d.). KidZone ScienceColored Flowers. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from  http://www.kidzone.ws/science/carnations.htmMiller, L. (2017, October 20). Bunches Flower Shop Interview Personal interview.Murray, A., AlicePretty, C. S., Lauren @ The Thinking Closet says, Says, A. M., Says, N., Says, S., . . . Says, J. (2014, October 20). Dyeing Flowers with Food Coloring Tutorial. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.dreamali ttlebigger.com/ post/ dyeing-flowers-with-food-coloring-tutorial.html.P. (2014, May 16). Most Commonly Bought Flowers. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.proflowers.com/blog/most-commonly-bought-flowersSend Flowers Online with Flower Delivery by 1-800-Flowers.com, the World’s Favorite Florist! (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2017, from https://www.1800flowers.com/?utm_medium=direct&utm_source=flowerscomWhat are Clothing Fabric Dyes Made Of? (2009, April 13). Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://wardrobeadvice.com/what-are-clothing-fabric-dyes-made-of/

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