The
present work was conducted in terrace cultivated rice agricultural fields
located on the gentle slopes of hillocks in Senapati District, Manipur (25º
16′ 43.3″ N Latitude; 94º 01′ 12.1″ E Longitude), at an elevation ranging
between 1117 and 1142 m a.s.l. The climate of the area is a subtropical humid
type. Mean annual temperature of the sites ranges from 3.4ºC to 34.4ºC, relative
humidity varies from 76% to 92% and annual rainfall between 671 mm and 1454 mm.
Soils of the study sites were clayey loam in texture and acidic in nature.

 

Rice
cultivation system of NE India, divided into two major types i.e. shifting
cultivation (Jhuming) and the Terrace field cultivation. Paddy cultivation in
the jhum field is reduced in recent years because of low yield. Further, they are
shifted to cultivate some cash crops like potatoes, cabbage, chillies, maize
and ginger. Terrace field cultivation was practiced for rice production on the
hill slope and near the river bank. Paddy was cultivated as a monocrop. There
are two types of terrace cultivation, the Wet terrace field cultivation and dry
Terrace field cultivation. In the wet terrace field’s water is available
throughout the year. Whereas, in our study site rice cultivation was done
through dry Terrace method. The dry terrace field cultivation depends entirely
on the monsoon and rainfall. The terrace agricultural practice is determined by
the ecological factors such as topography of site, quality of soil and source
of water. For rice cultivation, terrace field can be constructed in between the
flat land on the hill slope. Normally, Black soil is the best soil for
agriculture. After selecting the land and soil, the sources of water available
for the terrace field are considered and the field constructed. Spring water
and the rainfall are the only sources of water for Dry terrace field. However,
paddy will not be cultivated if there is no rains and less of spring water.

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For
paddy cultivation, before rainy season the field was ploughed two times with 10
days interval to remove weeds and mix the top soil. Organic manures such as leaf litters and cowdung were added to
the soil. Level the field for better water coverage, crop establishment,
and weed control. The whole surface then
remained covered with water of about 3 cm. The field is then ready for
receiving seedlings from the nursery. Different varieties of rice are
cultivated in different areas according to the climate and environment. Sowing
of paddy seed is done only in the month of April- May and in wet terrace field
conditions. After 25-30 days of seedling growth, it was transplanted to
different terrace fields during mid June- last week of July. The dry terrace
field plantation happen only after monsoon starts and also depends on the
availability of water for the field. Chemical fertilization was done three
times within harvesting periods. DAP (DAP 100kg/acre) was applied before
transplanting seedling to field and after tillering, whereas superphosphate (SP
260 kg/acre) was applied during tillering. Urea (100 kg/acre) and potash (50
kg/acre) were applied three times, firstly at the time of DAP, 15 days after
transplanting and tillering of crop plants.

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