Today
we are seeing unusual land degradation, and the loss of arable land at 29 to 35
times the historical rate. Drought and desertification is also on the rise each
year, amounting to the loss of 11 million hectares and affects poor communities
globally. Of the 8,400 animal breeds known, 7 percent are extinct and 23
percent are at risk of extinction.

The
life of human depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our nutrition and
nourishment. Plant life contributes 79 percent of our human diet, and we depend
on agriculture as an important economic resource and means of development. Plantation
account for 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, providing key habitats for
millions of species and important sources for clean air and water; as well as
being crucial for combating climate change.

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We can sum up the Sustainable Development Goal 15  in this
sentence: “Protect, restore and
promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests,
combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt
biodiversity loss”. To maintain diverse forms of life on land
requires targeted efforts to protect, restore and promote the conservation and
sustainable use of terrestrial and other ecosystems.  Sustainable Development Goal 15 focuses specifically mainly  on managing forests sustainably, restoring
quality less lands and successfully combating desertification, reducing natural
habitats and ending loss in bio diversity. In
the year 2000, 189 world leaders met at the historic millennium summit at the United
Nations headquarters in New York City. There they discussed the major problems
the world faces and developed 8 global goals to achieve by 2015 known as
millennium development goals. In 2014 the UN restructured and built upon these
goals resulting in 17 new goals known as the sustainable development goals.  Goal number 15 is to improve life on land. Land
is the foundation of our societies.

 

 

 

Background

The
sustainable Development goals were guided by the thought of Ban Ki-moon,
the United Nations Secretary-General from
2007 to 2016 stating that: “We don’t have plan B because there is no
planet B. A final document was formally approved at the UN Sustainable
Development Summit in September 2015 in New York, USA. The 2030 Development
Agenda titled “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development” was formally approved on 25 September 2015 by 193 countries
of the UN General Assembly. This agenda has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 51
outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 target.

What are Sustainable Development Goals?

There
are 17 global goals set by United Nations as Sustainable Development Goals.
The broad goals are interrelated though each has its own targets to achieve a
total of 169. They cover a everything related to social and economic
development issues worldwide.

These
include 

1.     Poverty
and hunger, 

2.     Health
and  education,

3.     Climate
change and  gender
equality,

4.     Water and sanitation, 

5.     Energy, environment and social
justice.

The
Sustainable Development Goals are also known as “Transforming our World:
the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. The Sustainable
Development goals were developed to replace the Millennium Development Goals which ended
in 2015. The SDG goals apply to all countries whereas MDG framework distinguish
between “developed” and “developing” nations.

 

 

 

Why is it important

Life
on land, it is the environment around us and we live off it and it is the
foundation of our society. Natural habitats play an important role in our daily
lives. We all depend on terrestrial ecosystem and forest is an essential source
of materials such as oxygen, recycling water, providing food etc.  We all have to take care of it because; in
reality we are the pollutants to the wildlife. We are taking more than what the
mother land can provide for us each year. 24 billion tons of fertile soil are
being lost every year. Every year we are using 25% more resources that our
planet can sustain. Out of 8300 known species of animals, 8% are extinct and
22% are at risk of extinction. 30% of earth’s land is covered by forests and
around 1.6 billion people depend on it for their livelihoods and that is equal
to 25% of the world’s population. Forests are home to more than 80% of all
terrestrial species, animals and plants. Biodiversity plays a key role in
maintaining our ecosystem because they are the key for our sources of income.
But by using more resources than what we need, will lead to a direct threat to
species, habitats. Climate change alone is expected to threaten. Approximately
more than a quarter of all species on land are under extinction. By the year
2025, more than 1.8 billion people will experience water scarcity and 2/3rd
of the world will be living under water stressed conditions. The demand for
water may increase by 50% by the end of the year 2050. As a result of
desertification more than 135 million people may be displaced by the end of 2045.
By the year 2050 habitat loss will be a biggest threat to life on land. Every
year due to desertification and drought alone we are losing 12 million hectares
of productive land, because of that we lost to produce 20 million tons of rice,
wheat and grain. These rice, wheat and grain will contribute to 60% of human
food intake. Because of land degradation, 74% of the people under poverty line
are being affected. We have to start protecting the land, especially when we are
expected to increase the food production by more than 70% by 2050 to feed the
entire population of the world. We cannot afford to lose over 7.3 billion
hectares of forest each year, it will affect the each living being in world. If
this desertification continues we lose more than 300 spices. If we don’t react
to this we will lose everything. But if we try and become successful in
mobilizing these problems now, we can change the world. By the end 2020, we can
ensure the conversation restoration and management of our forests. It is
possible only when start taking things that we need and reusing them. If we combat
desertification by integrating land and water management, we can protect soils
from erosion and degradation. We can stop bio diversity loss by protecting and
preventing the extinction of threatened species.

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