Understanding
and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services in the Rocky
Mountains

 

Introduction

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Deforestation is the permanent destroy of forests in
order to use the land or trees. Deforestation is clearing a huge number of
trees without the considering of establishing future growth. Harvesting, forest
fires do not consider as deforestation because the affected areas will grow
back.

The land is then often converted into farms, roads,
housing, and other city uses.

Causes
of Deforestation

Mining

The increase of mining on tropical forests is
furthering damage due to the rising demand and high mineral prices. These
projects are often together by large infrastructure construction, such as roads,
railways. This thing to deforestation is putting extra pressure on our forests
and freshwater ecosystems.

Paper

America, China, Japan, and Canada make up more than of
the world’s paper production 400 million tons a year. Approximately 640 million
trees represent the paper that’s thrown each year, according to the Environment
Paper Network. If we recycled, we could save 27.5 million tons of carbon
dioxide from going into the atmosphere.

Overpopulation

Due to overpopulation, more land is required to
establish housing and settlements. Many more roads and highways are being built
in order to facilitate a large number of people driving. With more people with
a large need for food and farmland to grow on and raise livestock put in
deforestation.

Example

The housing societies outside old city areas are
developed by destroy the forests. Because of that huge number of trees clear.
So that the overpopulation cause the deforestation.

Logging

Industries that wood-based such as paper,
matchsticks, and furniture need a huge quantity of wood. Lumber and charcoal
are common examples of trees being used as fuel. Cooking and heating all around
the world use these resources, and half of the illegal removal from forests is to
be used as fuelwood.  

 

 

Agriculture
Expansion & Livestock Ranching

A major cause of deforestation is agriculture
plantations. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and
soybeans are bound producers to clear forests at a worried rate. Farmers often
clear the land for cattle by using burn techniques. They will then use the
property until the soil is completely degraded and repeat the process on a new
patch of woodland.

Climate
Change

Forests are necessary the lungs of our planet. All
plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Trees are able to convert
more carbon dioxide than a regular plant. Forest loss is often caused by
climate change. Tropical rainforests are extremely humid due to the water vapor
released along with the oxygen. But when a forest is cut down, the humidity
levels decrease and causes the remaining plants to dry out. For example, drying
out our tropical rainforests increases fire damage. Fires can be both
accidental and intentional but destroy forests very fast.

Climate change will likely damage the ability of these
lands to provide ecosystem services. We describe 2 efforts to assess climate
change vulnerabilities and develop adaptation options on federal lands in the
Rocky Mountains. We focus on aspects that affect community economic security and
livelihood security, including water quality and quantity, timber, livestock
grazing, and recreation. Headwaters of the Rocky Mountains serve as the primary
source of water for large populations, and these headwaters are located
primarily on public land.

Solution

 Federal
agencies will play a important role in helping to protect water quantity and
quality by promoting watershed function and water conservation. Although
increased temperatures and atmospheric concentration of CO2 have the potential
to increase timber and forage production in the Rocky Mountains, those gains
may be offset by wildfires, droughts, insect outbreaks, non-native species, and
altered species composition. Our discover identified ways in which federal land
managers can help sustain forest and range productivity, primarily by
increasing ecosystem resilience and less current stressors, such as invasive
species. Climate change will likely increase recreation participation. However,
recreation managers will need more flexibility to adjust practices, provide
recreation opportunities, and remain economic benefits to communities. Federal
agencies are now transfer from the planning phase of climate change adaptation
to implementation to ensure that ecosystem services will continue to be provided
from federal lands in a changing climate.

Use
Renewable Wood Resources 

We can plant trees as a source of wood or use wood
from second-growth forests.

 

 

Reduce
Consumption 

Palm oil is in absolutely everything but a fast peek
at the ingredients is a simple habit to get into. Soybeans are another
deforestation hotspot but try finding ways to reduce consumption, avoiding it
completely, or opting for organic, local if possible soy products.

Strengthen
government and non-government institutions and policies

Strong government is essential to slow down the rate
of deforestation. FAO (2010) considered that half of the current tropical
deforestation could be stopped if the governments of deforesting countries were
considered to do so (Anon., 2010). Environmental NGO’s play role towards
conservation management has been enormous. They have the advantage over
government organizations and large international organizations because they are
not constrained by government to government bureaucracy and inertia. They are
good equipped to bypass corruption and they are very effective at getting to
the people at the frontier who are in most need.

Reference

http://www.jstor.org/stable/90013241?Search=yes=true&&searchUri=%2Ftopic%2Fsustainable-forest-management%2F=1#page_scan_tab_contents

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