(Synopsis for
M.Phil in Physics)

TITLE: Influence of microwave plasma
treatment and magnetic properties of cobalt iron oxide


             Name of Student                               :                       Muhammad Abubakar Tayyab

             Registration Number
                                    :                       2016-ag-1679



iron oxide nanoparticles are used in molecular imaging and drug delivery as a
nanoscale magnetic material. Cobalt iron oxide are used for the field of
environment remediation in wastewater treatment. They will study the cobalt
leakage of the coated nanoparticles.  In
this research work, by using high temperature they will synthesize high
crystals of cobalt ferrite nanocrystals. When they will change experimental
conditions then size of particles will vary from 4 to 9 nm. Transmission electron
microscopic (TEM) will display stability of nanocrystals. TEM will show two and
three dimension images of particles. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution
transmission electron microscopic will display high crystalline images of the cobalt
ferrite structure. X-ray diffraction will investigate structural properties and
phase composition of cobalt iron oxide. The atomic composition of nanocrystals
will display elemental analysis of cobalt ferrite. The behavior of magnetic
nanoparticles highly  involves in this
nanocrystals of cobalt iron oxide.      







(Synopsis for M.Phil in Physics)

Influence of microwave plasma treatment and magnetic properties of cobalt iron


           Date of Admission                            :                       08-09-2016

             Date of
Initiation                               :                       After approval

             Probable Duration                              :                       3 months


             Name of Student                               :                       Muhammad Abubakar Tayyab

             Reg No.                                             :                       2016-ag-1679

             Supervisor                                          :                       Dr.
Abdul Ghaffar


             Name of Supervisor                           :                       Dr.
Abdul Ghaffar

             Name of Member                               :                       Dr. Muhammad Yasin Naz

             Name of Member                               :                       Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif


The determination of the Fe, Co and Ni micro
content in pure ingredients, is explained by gas phase use and ultimate monitoring
with atomic fluorescence spectrometry.(Rigin. 1992)

iron cobalt alloy nanoparticles are produce from the thermal decomposition of a
metal. By using previously reported synthetic procedure the precursor, (è5-C5H5)CoFe2(CO)9,
is prepared.(Hyeon et al., 2002)


The nanosized cobalt ferrite are produced  by thermal method. The effect of Fe/Co ratio
on catalytic behavior and phase transformations in the process of methanol
decomposition is clear by using the effect of the preparation methods.(Manova et al., 2004)

The possible high saturation magnetization display
iron-cobalt alloys and hence attain maximum SLP for any material. By varying
their composition the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Fe-Co alloys can be
adjust over a wide range. For use in biomedical applications the estimation of
desired power loss for particles at small enough sizes display their
et al., 2007)

The study of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is
synthesis in a laboratory scale,9 but the use is not possible in medicine
because of many problems such as poor comprehensibility of the surface due to
existence of surface collection  in
solution and quantity release of cobalt in aqueous solution is incredible.(Baldi
et al., 2007)

The study of electrochemical Co and Mn oxides are
perform evolution for oxygen as catalytic materials. The catalytic components
of water oxidation and frequencies are most applicable for the purpose of
assessing metal oxides in the form of nanosized clusters. TEM construct images
of Co oxide nanoclusters in SBA-15 silica at 4.2 wt% 8.6 wt% loading by wet
impregnation. These images are conserve for the 
formation of the Co oxide clusters which show that the unity of the
silica channel structure. We are display Co oxide nanoclusters by analyse many
SBA-15 particles in different regions of the powder which are formed inside the
mesopores and they are found on the outer surface of the silica particles. (Jiao
and Frei. 2010)

In methanol decomposition, we are prepare of cobalt
ferrite which maintain on AC from the bio-mass. We are study reduction of
mesoporous SBA-15 silica in order to highlight the result of carbon support.(Genova
et al., 2014)

can be formed high purity and crystalline Fe-Co metals alloys nanopowders
through thermal decomposition of FeCl3 and CoCl2 in N2 atmosphere as reducing
gas and carrier by using H2. We should be avoided from the long processing
times because of the NiCl2 precursor of the hygroscopic property that can be
block the inlet of the solid phase measuring device.(Chau et al., 2014)

The most organic transition metal base
catalysts of cobalt ions and their composites are introduce very effective as peroxymonosulfate
activators. In the cobalt system there is no need for activity enhancing
support such as thermal activation.(Zhu et
al., 2017)




objective of this research work nanocrystalline of cobalt ferrite synthesize
and characterize with the help of XRD and SEM.



1992) study the reductive carbonylation by simultaneous treatment with NaBH and
carbon monoxide in which sample solution of metals iron groups are change into
volatile carbonyls. We are used isolation of carbonyls of iron and cobalt to
eliminate problems arise from slow formation. The detect limits are 3 pg for
Ni, 5 pg for Fe and 20 pg for Co.

 (Kim et
al., 2003) study carbon nanotubes on silicon oxide
substrate by pyrolyzing iron phthalocyanine, cobalt phthalocyanine and nickel
phthalocyanine are produce vertically affiliate on silicon oxide substrate in
the temperature range from 700 to 1000?C. The growth rate of carbon nanotubes
increase by a factor of approximately 45 and also increase the average diameter
from 30 to 80 nm when we increase the temperature from 700 t0 1000?C.

(Manova et al.,
2004) study iron cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different Co/Fe ratios are
collected by the combination of 
mechanical milling and chemical precipitation with ultrasonic treatment.
Structural properties and phase composition of iron-cobalt oxides are analyse
by XRD.

(Habib et al., 2007) provide magnetic nanoparticles from the thermoblative
cancer therapy. In an rf field the use of magnetic hyperthermia to heat
cancerous regions of magnetic nanoparticles. By heating at low concentraction
the metallic magnetic nanoparticles have larger magnetic moments than iron

(Baldi et al.,
2007) study stable cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles are synthesized and
fully characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis.

(Tuncer et al., 2008) report
the composite systems of dielectric properties are made from the small quantity
of mono disperse magnetic nanoparticles that place in a polymer matrix. TEM
observe images of matrix polymer materials which are compact in approximately
100 nm size between particle clusters. These particles clusters are collected
from separated spherical particles that contain unconnected networks in the
matrix. By the addition of nanometer size cobalt-iron oxide particles the
dielectric rest and breakdown properties of matrix polymeric materials are

Feng Jiao and Heinz Frei (2010) study the thickness
of the Co phosphate layer of about 2 ? and the observed current density allow
an estimate of TOF > 0.0007 s-1 if a density of Co centers in the
electrocatalytic film equal to that of Co3(PO4)2 is assumed.

(Ahmeda et al.,
2012) provide electrochemical cobalt oxide results that increase the ORR
activity of iron phthalocyanine. After 50 cycles the output voltage of the MFC
only decreased to 85% of its initial voltage, indicate that the synthesize
catalyst show reasonable long term strength.

(Genova et al.,
2014) are used matrix of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The obtained materials
are specify by N2 physisorption, XRD and FTIR and test as catalyst for hydrogen
making from methanol. The formation of pure CoFe2O4 and ferrite phases are
observe for carbon help bi-component materials depending on the Co/Fe ratios.

and Schlabach 2014) study gas-phase of microwave plasma that
synthesize from the inorganic materials and material groups are analyse from
the application of materials. The synthesis of particle is the main application
of microwave plasma process.

(Zhu et al,.2017) used atmosphere dependent
calcination series of Co/Fe catalysis with esablish phase structure are prepare
through chemical solution. XRD, SEM and TEM are used to characterize the
crystals structure of composition.

(Keng et al,. 2009)  reported the colloidal polymerization of cobalt nanoparticles of polymer
coated ferromagnetic, prepare the polystyrene coated cobalt oxide nanowires.
The nanoparticles of cobalt oxide are prepared by using the combination of a
solution oxidation of metallic colloids and dipolar nanoparticles.

water treatment, due to nanotechnology significant removal of effluents from
the waste water accurs.In these days nanoparticles, nanopowder and nanomembrane
used for removal of harmful chemical and biological materials include
metals  zinc, Cadmium, mercury, nickel
etc. Nanofibers and Carbon nanotubes also used for treatment of water. Due to
large surface area nanoparticles provide good result in the treatment of waste
water.(Tiwari et al., 2008)

lot of number of nanosized developed materials have been synthesized for
photocatalysis using different methods.These catalysts need applications in
environmental remediation, sterilization, hydrogen production and renewable
energy. Nanophotocatalyst has been applied successfully for the treatment
of  dangerous materials such as industrial
refuse containing dyes. This study of composition, surface area, shape, size
and nanostructure of these photocatalyst may help in current and further
advancement of photocatalysts for environmental problems. (Ullah et al., 2012)

adsorption of  metal in the ferrite was
studied, dye concentration and time of exposure.Due to surface active groups
present on the nanoparticles the adsorption process is thought to be through
electrostatic interaction.In the presence of magnetic field, nanoparticles have
ferromagnetic behavior so greatly separation takes place. The studies on
cationic dyes adsorption on the magnetic nanoparticles have focused on
determining the adsorption degree, determining the degree of desorption and
adsorption speed. (Virlan et al., 2013)

The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle to changed some parts using
cationic surface operative agent. Dye removal capacity of the surface modified
nanoparticle as an adsorbent was examined. The properties of the adsorbent were
studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Mahmoodi et al., 2014)

.Dyes are complicated organic compounds which
are used by various industries to colour their products.Water that is released
as waste contain dyes which may cause serious hazards to the environment.Usually
these dyes are toxic that can cause skin and eye irritation. Therefore, many
researchers have been studied the effectiveness of dyes removal from solution
that contain dyes by different separation techniques. This review paper gives
complete literature information about dyes, its classification and toxicity
together with different treatment techniques into dye adsorption properties of
many non traditional cost effective defendable adsorbents. (Sen and Dawood,

In  this Study, ZnBiSbO4 was synthesized by a
solid-state reaction method.After synthesized the ZnBiSbO4, the
properties investigated by TEM,SEM,XRD and UV-Visible Spectrometer.The results
displayed that ZnBiSbO4 has higher photocatalytic activity compared with some
others for the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine under visible light
irradiation.The poisonous to plants of the photocatalytic treated indigo
carmine  wastewater was determined  by examining its effect on seed  growth (Luan et al., 2014).

waste water plays an important role in environment pollution.Treatment of this
water before discharged to avaid environmental problems.To campare with the
classical methods(coagulation and flocculation, oxidation and membrane
separation) of dyes removal, the adsorption techniques is the most adaptable
used.In this research work, we will use the zinc ferrite as adsorbent in the
treatment of waste water containing dyes.In this work, we will obtain zinc
ferrite after heating process of zinc ferrioxalate coordination compound at
temperature 500°C.In this research work, we will characterize the zinc ferrite
by X-Rays differaction(XRD), Infra Red spectroscopy(IR spectroscopy) and scanning
electron microscopy(SEM).(Voda et al., 2014)