William
T. Harris

Speech
#1 Outline

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January
29, 2018

 

 

Outline

 

General Purpose Statement:  To Inform

Specific Purpose Statement:  I will inform you of two marvels in the
cosmos.

Central Idea Statement:  Two elusive phenomena: dark matter and
dark energy, are thought to make up more than 80% of the known universe.

 

 

I.                  
INTRODUCTION

A.   
Every
year we are hit an estimated 100,000 times by dark matter particles.

B.    
Understanding
dark matter may help us learn the fate of our world.

C.    
I
will provide you with information from a number of websites on how dark matter
affects the universe.

D.   
Today,
I will inform you on how dark matter:

1. Is made of
particles that don’t absorb, or emit light.

2. Accounts for the
movement of stars and expansion of the universe.

 

II.               
BODY

A.   
Scientists
believe dark matter is made of non-baryonic matter.

1. WIMPS (weakly
interacting massive particles) are the foremost contender, having up to a
hundred times the mass of a proton.

a.      
Sterile
neutrinos should be considered, as well.

1)     
Neutrinos
are particles with a mass close to zero, that rarely interact with normal matter.

b.     
Neutrinos
come from the sun, but they pass right through us.

c.      
This
information comes from www.space.com

2. Dark matter can
be categorized as cold, warm, or hot. This refers to velocity, not temperature.

a.      
Cold
dark matter most likely takes the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, Robust
Associations of Massive Baryonic Objects, or Weakly Interacting Massive
Particles.

b.     
Warm
dark matter is most likely made up of sterile neutrinos, or gravitinos.

c.      
Hot
dark matters likely candidates are neutrinos.

d.     
This
information comes from www.phys.org

3.  MACHOs are another possible component of dark
matter.

a.      
Massive
Compact Halo Objects are made of ordinary matter, such as: protons, neutrons,
and electrons. They may be neutron stars, or black holes.

b.     
Researchers
have detected MACHOs via their gravitational effect on light from far away
objects.

c.      
This
information comes from www.nasa.gov

 

B.    
Scientists
believe dark matter is responsible for the movement of stars in galaxies.

1. The rate of our
universe’s expansion seems to be speeding up.

a.      
This
acceleration is thought to be caused by a mysterious force, called dark energy.

b.     
Dark
energy is theorized to act in an opposite manner of gravity.

c.      
This
information comes from science.nasa.gov

2. Fritz Zwicky was
the first astronomer to suggest the presence of dark matter.

a.      
This
would explain the inconsistency between projected and detected rotation speeds
of stars in the galaxy.

b.     
Vera
Rubin would later confirm the theory by observing that stars on the edge of the
Andromeda galaxy moved faster than expected.

c.      
This
information comes from cosine.yale.edu

3. Two possibilities
on how the universe ends are called the big crunch and the big freeze.

a.      
The
big freeze is a theory in which the universe would continue to expand,
endlessly.

b.     
However,
the big crunch states that one day the universe will cease its expansion and begin
to retract.

c.      
This
information comes from www.bbc.com

 

III.            
CONCLUSION

A.   
Today
I have provided you with some insights on dark matter.

1. Composition

2. Behavior

B.    
Concluding
remarks

x

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